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Herbicides are often used to terminate cover crops. Producers would like to use herbicides that work quickly, are effective, and do not increase the risk of selecting herbicide-resistant weeds. Eight experiments were conducted to determine whether mixing glyphosate (900 g a.e. ha−1) with rimsulfuron (15 g a.i. ha−1), mesotrione (100 g a.i. ha−1), or rimsulfuron + mesotrione enhances winter rye control and to ascertain whether using urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) as the herbicide carrier improves and accelerates herbicide efficacy. Winter rye control was assessed 1, 2, 3, and 4 wk after application (WAA) and biomass was measured 4 WAA. The addition of rimsulfuron, mesotrione, or rimsulfuron + mesotrione to glyphosate did not enhance winter rye control. Similarly, using UAN as the herbicide carrier did not improve or accelerate herbicide efficacy. Glyphosate alone provided the greatest level of winter rye control. The addition of rimsulfuron, mesotrione, or rimsulfuron + mesotrione to glyphosate did not increase the level or speed of control. However, mixing glyphosate with rimsulfuron, mesotrione, or rimsulfuron + mesotrione adds other modes of action without compromising winter rye control.
Waterhemp has evolved resistance to seven herbicide modes of action in the United States and to five in Canada, which limits weed control options for producers. The objective of this research was to quantify the level and duration of residual control of multiple herbicide-resistant (MHR) waterhemp with five Group 15 herbicides (acetochlor, dimethenamid-p, flufenacet, pyroxasulfone, and S-metolachlor) applied preemergence in a non-crop area. Four field trials were conducted over a 2-yr period (2021, 2022) in southwestern Ontario, Canada. By 4 wk after application (WAA) 91% of waterhemp had emerged in the nontreated control area. The numerical control of waterhemp with all Group 15 herbicides, with the exception of pyroxasulfone, was greatest at 4 WAA, then control declined. Flufenacet provided the lowest waterhemp control; dimethenamid-p and S-metolachlor provided intermediate control, and acetochlor and pyroxasulfone provided the highest control. Waterhemp control with pyroxasulfone peaked at 6 WAA with 99% and declined to 77% at 12 WAA. Flufenacet (low and high rates) was predicted to reduce waterhemp emergence by 50% for 42 to 44 d after application (DAA). Dimethenamid-p, S-metolachlor, and acetochlor (both formulations and three rates) were predicted to reduce waterhemp emergence by 80% for 36, 43, and 33 to 51 DAA, respectively; in contrast, pyroxasulfone was predicted to reduce waterhemp emergence by 80% for 82 DAA. This study concludes that of the Group 15 herbicides evaluated, flufenacet provides the lowest and shortest residual control of waterhemp, and pyroxasulfone provides the highest and longest residual control of waterhemp.
The development of glufosinate-resistant soybean cultivars has created opportunities for use of glufosinate applied postemergence for weed control. Four field experiments were conducted in 2021 and 2022 to ascertain the effect of glufosinate rate and the addition of ammonium sulfate on annual weed control in glyphosate/glufosinate/2,4-D–resistant soybean. An increased glufosinate rate of 500 from 300 g ai ha−1 improved control of common ragweed, common lambsquarters, redroot pigweed, and foxtail species and resulted in decreased density and dry biomass of common lambsquarters and foxtail species. The addition of ammonium sulfate to glufosinate increased control of common lambsquarters, 2 and 8 wk after application (WAA), and of foxtail species, 2, 4, and 8 WAA, but did not improve control of common ragweed and redroot pigweed. Increasing the dose of glufosinate from 300 to 500 g ai ha−1 improves control of common ragweed, redroot pigweed, common lambsquarters, and foxtail species; however, the benefit of the addition of ammonium sulfate to glufosinate is weed species-specific.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) biotypes of horseweed were first confirmed in southern Ontario in 2010 and have spread across southern Ontario. A total of four field experiments were conducted between 2021 and 2022 to determine GR horseweed control with one- and two-pass herbicide programs in glyphosate/glufosinate/2,4-D-resistant (GG2R) soybean. 2,4-D choline/glyphosate DMA, halauxifen-methyl, and saflufenacil applied preplant (PP) controlled GR horseweed by 59%, 72%, and 78% 8 wk after postemergence (POST) application (WAA-POST); there was no improvement of GR horseweed control when 2,4-D choline/glyphosate DMA was added to saflufenacil; in contrast, there was improved GR horseweed control when saflufenacil was added to 2,4-D choline/glyphosate DMA. Glufosinate and 2,4-D choline/glyphosate DMA applied POST controlled glyphosate-resistant horseweed by 71% and 86%, respectively, 8 WAA-POST. Two-pass herbicide programs of a PP followed by POST application provided greater GR horseweed control than a PP or POST herbicide applied alone. Glufosinate or 2,4-D choline/glyphosate DMA applied POST following 2,4-D choline/glyphosate DMA or halauxifen-methyl applied PP improved GR horseweed control by 29% to 38% and 24%, respectively at 8 WAA-POST. The application of 2,4-D choline/glyphosate DMA applied POST following saflufenacil applied PP improved control by 20% 8 WAA-POST; there was no improvement of GR horseweed control when glufosinate was applied POST following saflufenacil applied PP or when either POST herbicide was applied following saflufenacil + 2,4-D choline/glyphosate DMA applied PP. When used in a two-pass program, 2,4-D choline/glyphosate DMA POST provided 2% to 3% greater control of GR horseweed than glufosinate.
Waterhemp control in Ontario has increased in complexity due to the evolution of biotypes that are resistant to five herbicide modes of action (Groups 2, 5, 9, 14, and 27 as categorized by the Weed Science Society of America). Four field trials were carried out over a 2-yr period in 2021 and 2022 to assess the control of multiple-herbicide-resistant (MHR) waterhemp biotypes in glyphosate/glufosinate/2,4-D-resistant (GG2R) soybean using one- and two-pass herbicide programs. S-metolachlor/metribuzin, pyroxasulfone/sulfentrazone, pyroxasulfone/flumioxazin, and pyroxasulfone + metribuzin applied preemergence (PRE) controlled MHR waterhemp similarly by 46%, 63%, 60%, and 69%, respectively, at 8 wk after postemergence (POST) application (WAA-B). A one-pass application of 2,4-D choline/glyphosate DMA POST provided greater control of MHR waterhemp than glufosinate. Two-pass herbicide programs of a PRE herbicide followed by (fb) a POST-applied herbicide resulted in greater MHR waterhemp control compared to a single PRE or POST herbicide application. PRE herbicides fb glufosinate or 2,4-D choline/glyphosate DMA POST controlled MHR waterhemp by 74% to 91% and by 84% to 96%, respectively, at 8 WAA-B. Two-pass herbicide applications of an effective PRE residual herbicide fb 2,4-D choline/glyphosate DMA POST in GG2R soybean can effectively manage waterhemp that is resistant to herbicides in Groups 2, 5, 9, 14, and 27.
Many studies have documented the interaction between 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting and photosystem II (PSII)-inhibiting herbicides. Most have focused on the interaction between mesotrione and atrazine, with only a few studies characterizing the nature of the interaction between tolpyralate and atrazine. Therefore, five field experiments were conducted in Ontario, Canada, over a 3-yr period (2019 to 2021) to characterize the interaction between three rates of tolpyralate (15, 30, and 45 g ai ha−1) and three rates of atrazine (140, 280, and 560 g ai ha−1) for the control of seven annual weed species in corn (Zea mays L.). Tolpyralate at 30 or 45 g ha−1 applied with atrazine at 280 or 560 g ha−1 controlled velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik.), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.), common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) >90% at 8 wk after application (WAA). Tolpyralate and atrazine were synergistic at each rate combination for the control of A. theophrasti at 8 WAA. In contrast, A. retroflexus and S. arvensis control at 8 WAA was additive with each rate combination. At 8 WAA, C. album control was generally additive, but one rate combination was synergistic. Ambrosia artemisiifolia control at 8 WAA was synergistic with five rate combinations and additive with the other four. Barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.] control at 8 WAA was additive with seven of the rate combinations and synergistic with two. Setaria spp. control at 8 WAA was synergistic with one more rate combination compared with E. crus-galli, but the two weed species shared the same synergistic rate combinations. This study concludes that extrapolation or broad classifications of the interaction between tolpyralate and atrazine would be inappropriate, as the interaction can vary due to herbicide rate, weed species, and the response parameter analyzed.
Tolpyralate is an herbicide that is usually mixed with atrazine for broad-spectrum weed control in corn. Previous research has provided information on the effective dose (ED) of tolpyralate applied alone and in a 1:33.3 mixture with atrazine; however, tolpyralate is commercially applied at a dose of 30 to 40 g ai ha−1 with a minimum of 560 g ai ha−1 of atrazine. Therefore, five field trials were conducted over 3 yr (2019 to 2021) to determine the ED of atrazine to complement 30 g ai ha−1 of tolpyralate to achieve 80%, 90%, and 95% control of seven weed species 2, 4, and 8 wk after application (WAA). Tolpyralate was applied alone and in a mixture with atrazine doses ranging from 50 to 2,000 g ai ha−1. At 8 WAA, the ED of atrazine for 95% control of velvetleaf, common ragweed, common lambsquarters, and wild mustard was below the minimum label dose of atrazine on the commercial tolpyralate label, ranging from 430 to 520 g ai ha−1, which supports the use of the minimum label dose of atrazine. In contrast, redroot pigweed required 1,231 g ai ha−1 of atrazine to complement tolpyralate for 95% control 8 WAA. At 8 WAA, barnyardgrass and a mixture of green foxtail and giant foxtail (Setaria spp.) were not controlled by 80%, 90%, or 95% with tolpyralate applied alone or co-applied with any dose of atrazine evaluated in this study. The results of this study conclude that tolpyralate + atrazine is highly efficacious on several weed species at atrazine doses of 40 to 130 g ai ha−1 below the label dose of 560 g ai ha−1, but the use of the higher dose of tolpyralate or another herbicide may be required to improve control of redroot pigweed and grass weed species.
The complementary modes of action of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) and photosystem II (PSII) inhibitors have been credited for the synergistic weed control improvement of several species. Recent research discovered that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and subsequent lipid peroxidation is the cause of cell death by the glutamine synthetase inhibitor glufosinate. Therefore, a basis for synergy exists between glufosinate and HPPD inhibitors, but the interaction has not been well reported. Four field experiments were conducted in Ontario, Canada, in 2020 and 2021 to determine the interaction between HPPD-inhibiting (mesotrione and tolpyralate) and ROS-generating (atrazine, bromoxynil, bentazon, and glufosinate) herbicides on control of annual weed species in corn (Zea mays L.). The ROS generators were synergistic with the HPPD inhibitors and provided ≥95% control of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik.), except for tolpyralate + glufosinate, which was additive at 8 wk after application (WAA) and provided 87% control. Tank mixes of HPPD inhibitors plus ROS generators were synergistic for the control of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.), except for tolpyralate + glufosinate, which was antagonistic at 8 WAA. Tolpyralate + glufosinate was antagonistic for the control of barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.] and Setaria spp. at 8 WAA. Common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) control at 8 WAA was synergistic and ≥95% with mesotrione plus atrazine, bromoxynil, or glufosinate and with tolpyralate plus bromoxynil or bentazon. Herbicide tank mixes were generally additive for the control of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) at 8 WAA, except for the synergistic tank mixes of tolpyralate plus atrazine or bromoxynil; however, each tank mix provided 97% to 100% control of S. arvensis. Results from this study demonstrate that co-application of ROS generators with mesotrione or tolpyralate controlled all broadleaf weed species >90% at 8 WAA, with the exceptions of A. artemisiifolia and C. album control with tolpyralate + glufosinate. Mesotrione plus PSII inhibitors controlled E. crus-galli and Setaria spp. 48 to 68 percentage points less than tolpyralate plus the respective PSII inhibitor at 8 WAA; however, mesotrione + glufosinate and tolpyralate + glufosinate controlled the grass weed species similarly.
Common bean and azuki bean are poor competitors with weeds and demonstrate sensitivity to herbicides used for weed control in soybean. S-metolachlor, flufenacet, and acetochlor are categorized as Group 15 herbicides and provide control of multiple annual grass and select small-seeded broadleaf weeds. By way of field trials near Exeter and Ridgetown, Ontario, in 2019, 2020, and 2021, four dry bean market classes (azuki, kidney, small red, and white bean) were evaluated for their tolerance to 1× established label rates and 2× rates of S-metolachlor (1,600 and 3,200 g ai ha−1), flufenacet (750 and 1,500 g ai ha−1) and acetochlor (1,700 and 3,400 g ai ha−1) applied preplant incorporated (PPI). Injury was evaluated by assessing visible injury symptoms, density, shoot biomass, height, seed moisture content, and seed yield. Azuki bean was more sensitive to the Group 15 herbicides than other dry bean market classes; the Group 15 herbicides caused a 12% reduction in azuki bean growth at 2 wk after emergence; growth reduction was ≤2% in the other bean classes. Flufenacet (2× rate) was the most injurious treatment, causing a 27% reduction in azuki bean yield. This study concludes that kidney, small red, and white bean have a sufficient margin of crop safety to flufenacet, acetochlor, and S-metolachlor applied PPI. Azuki bean was sensitive to flufenacet; additional research is needed to investigate azuki bean tolerance to acetochlor and S-metolachlor applied PPI.
Tolpyralate is commonly mixed with atrazine for improved control of common annual weed species in corn production systems in the United States and Canada. Weed control efficacy with this mixture is enhanced with the addition of methylated seed oil (MSO) Concentrate®; however, there is little information on the efficacy of tolpyralate + atrazine with other proprietary adjuvants. Therefore, four trials were conducted at field research sites in Ontario, Canada, to evaluate the efficacy of tolpyralate + atrazine when applied with six different commercially available adjuvants on four annual broadleaf and two annual grass weed species in corn. The adjuvants evaluated were MSO Concentrate®, Agral® 90, Assist® Oil Concentrate, Carrier®, LI 700®, and Merge®. A treatment of tolpyralate + atrazine applied with no adjuvant was also included in the study. For the control of velvetleaf and wild mustard, the adjuvants evaluated with tolpyralate + atrazine did not improve control. At 8 wk after application (WAA), the use of Agral® 90, Assist® Oil Concentrate, Carrier®, MSO Concentrate®, or Merge® with tolpyralate + atrazine provided similar or greater control of common ragweed than tolpyralate + atrazine applied with LI 700®. At 8 WAA, the adjuvants performed similarly with tolpyralate + atrazine for the control of common lambsquarters; however, LI 700® was the only adjuvant that did not improve control compared to tolpyralate + atrazine applied without an adjuvant. At 8 WAA, MSO Concentrate®, Carrier®, and Merge® improved control of barnyardgrass and foxtail species with tolpyralate + atrazine to a similar or greater level than Assist® Oil Concentrate, Agral® 90, and LI 700®. Overall, MSO Concentrate®, Carrier®, or Merge® should be added to tolpyralate + atrazine for control of the myriad of weed species interfering with corn production.
The objectives of this study were to determine if the level and consistency of glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed control prior to soybean planting can be improved by (i) adding halauxifen-methyl, 2,4-D ester, saflufenacil, metribuzin, or dicamba to glufosinate, (ii) increasing the rate of glufosinate from 500 to 1,000 g ai ha–1, and (iii) adding 28% urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) as the carrier solution. During a 2-yr period (2020–2021), four field trials were conducted on commercial farms located in southwestern Ontario, Canada, with confirmed GR horseweed. Glufosinate controlled GR horseweed 65%, 66%, and 63% at 2, 4, and 8 wk after application (WAA), respectively, and reduced density and biomass 46% and 33% at 8 WAA, respectively. There was no improvement in GR horseweed control from the addition of halauxifen-methyl, 2,4-D ester or saflufenacil to glufosinate and no decrease in density and biomass, with the exception that the addition of saflufenacil to glufosinate reduced density 30% compared to glufosinate alone. The addition of metribuzin to glufosinate improved GR horseweed control by 22%, 22%, and 28% at 2, 4, and 8 WAA, respectively, and further reduced density and biomass 50% and 47%, respectively, at 8 WAA, respectively. The addition of dicamba to glufosinate improved GR horseweed control by 19%, 26%, and 30% at 2, 4, and 8 WAA, respectively, and further reduced density and biomass 54% and 60%, respectively, at 8 WAA. There was no improvement in GR horseweed control by increasing the rate of glufosinate from 500 to 1,000 g ai ha–1 or when using 28% UAN as the carrier solution. The addition of all herbicides to glufosinate, increasing the rate of glufosinate, or using 28% UAN as the carrier solution improved the consistency of GR horseweed control.
Tolpyralate is a 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase–inhibiting herbicide that is applied postemergence for control of annual broadleaf and grass weeds in corn. Current Canadian label recommendations for tolpyralate specify the addition of a methylated seed oil (MSO) adjuvant (MSO Concentrate®) for improved weed control. The efficacy of tolpyralate applied with other proprietary adjuvants has not been widely reported in the peer-reviewed literature. Therefore, four field trials were conducted in corn over 2020 and 2021 in Ontario, Canada, to evaluate MSO Concentrate®, Agral® 90 (nonionic surfactant), Assist® Oil Concentrate (blended surfactant), Carrier® (blended surfactant), LI 700® (nonionic surfactant), and Merge® (blended surfactant) as adjuvants with tolpyralate for the control of annual broadleaf and grass weeds. At 8 wk after application (WAA), tolpyralate applied with MSO Concentrate®, Agral® 90, Assist® Oil Concentrate, Carrier®, or Merge® controlled velvetleaf, wild mustard, barnyardgrass, and foxtail species similarly. These adjuvants also enhanced the efficacy of tolpyralate similarly for the control of common ragweed at 8 WAA with the exception that Agral® 90 was inferior to Merge®. At 8 WAA, tolpyralate controlled common lambsquarters the greatest when applied with MSO Concentrate®, Agral® 90, Carrier®, or Merge®; these adjuvants with the exception of Agral® 90 were superior to Assist® Oil Concentrate. At 8 WAA, tolpyralate applied with LI 700® controlled common ragweed, barnyardgrass, and foxtail species less than when tolpyralate was applied with the other adjuvants tested; control of these weed species with tolpyralate was not improved with LI 700® when compared to tolpyralate applied without an adjuvant. Overall, tolpyralate applied with either MSO Concentrate®, Carrier®, or Merge® controlled all annual broadleaf and grass weed species similarly or greater than tolpyralate applied without an adjuvant or tolpyralate with Agral® 90, Assist® Oil Concentrate, or LI 700® at 8 WAA.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed interference in soybean can reduce soybean yield up to 93%. Glyphosate plus dicamba, 2,4-D ester, halauxifen-methyl or pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D applied preplant (PP) provide variable GR horseweed control in soybean. The objective of this study was to determine if the addition of saflufenacil or metribuzin to glyphosate plus dicamba, 2,4-D ester, halauxifen-methyl, or pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D will improve the level and consistency of GR horseweed control. Four trials were conducted over the 2020 and 2021 field seasons in fields with GR horseweed populations. Glyphosate plus dicamba, 2,4-D ester, halauxifen-methyl, or pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D controlled GR horseweed 96%, 77%, 71%, and 52%, respectively, at 8 wk after application (WAA). When saflufenacil or metribuzin was added to glyphosate plus dicamba or 2,4-D ester, GR horseweed control was not improved at 8 WAA. When saflufenacil or metribuzin was added to glyphosate plus halauxifen-methyl, GR horseweed control improved by 27% and 25%, respectively, at 8 WAA. When saflufenacil or metribuzin was added to glyphosate plus pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D, GR horseweed control was improved by 47% and 37%, respectively, at 8 WAA. The consistency of GR horseweed control was improved when saflufenacil or metribuzin was added to glyphosate plus dicamba, 2,4-D ester, halauxifen-methyl, or pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D compared to each herbicide applied alone. Synergism was observed when metribuzin was added to glyphosate plus halauxifen-methyl and when saflufenacil or metribuzin was added to glyphosate plus pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D at 8 WAA. Though GR horseweed control was improved with the addition of saflufenacil or metribuzin to glyphosate plus halauxifen-methyl or pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D, all treatments including saflufenacil resulted in the highest level and most consistent control.
Six field experiments were conducted to investigate any interaction between pyroxasulfone and flumioxazin on soybean tolerance and control of multiple-herbicide-resistant (MHR) waterhemp in soybean during 2016 and 2017 in Ontario, Canada. There was a synergistic increase in soybean injury with the co-application of pyroxasulfone and flumioxazin at all rates evaluated at 2 wk after emergence (WAE), the two highest rates evaluated (134/106 and 268/211 g ai ha–1) at 4 WAE, and the highest rate (268/211 g ai ha–1) evaluated at 8 WAE. Soybean injury with all pyroxasulfone and flumioxazin treatments was transient and had no adverse effect on soybean grain yield. Pyroxasulfone applied preemergence at 45, 89, 134, and 268 g ai ha–1 controlled MHR waterhemp up to 72%, 89%, 92%, and 95%, respectively. Flumioxazin applied preemergence at 35, 70, 106, and 211 g ai ha–1 controlled MHR waterhemp up to 78%, 90%, 93%, and 96%, respectively. Pyroxasulfone/flumioxazin applied preemergence at 45/35, 89/70, 134/106, and 268/211 g ai ha–1 controlled MHR waterhemp up to 92%, 96%, 98%, and 100%, respectively. There were no significant antagonistic or synergistic interactions for the control of MHR waterhemp with pyroxasulfone/flumioxazin at rates evaluated except at 268/211 g ai ha–1, which provided a synergistic increase in MHR waterhemp control at 4 WAE. The MHR waterhemp biomass and density reductions followed a trend similar trend to visible control. Pyroxasulfone/flumioxazin at 268/211 g ai ha–1 caused a synergistic response in biomass reduction (9% difference). Based on these results, there is an additive increase in MHR waterhemp control and potential for a synergistic increase in soybean injury with the co-application of pyroxasulfone plus flumioxazin.
Recent research reported synergism between glufosinate plus very low rates of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)–inhibiting herbicides on select broadleaf weeds. Two field studies, each consisting of four trials, were conducted in 2020 and 2021 in commercial fields with glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed in Ontario, Canada. Study 1 evaluated GR horseweed control with glufosinate plus five PPO inhibitors at 5% of the label rate; study 2 evaluated what dose of saflufenacil is needed when co-applied with glufosinate to improve GR horseweed control. In study 1, glufosinate plus very low rates of PPO-inhibiting herbicides provided low GR horseweed control. At site 1, despite the synergistic increase in GR horseweed control with saflufenacil (1.25 g ai ha–1) plus glufosinate (300 g ai ha–1), the level of control did not exceed 42% at 2 and 4 wk after application (WAA); the interaction was additive at 8 WAA. The co-application of glufosinate (300 g ai ha–1) with pyraflufen-ethyl (0.34 g ai ha–1), pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D (26.4 g ai ha–1), flumioxazin (5.35 g ai ha–1), fomesafen (12 g ai ha–1), or sulfentrazone (7 g ai ha–1) resulted in an additive interaction for GR horseweed control at 2, 4, and 8 WAA. However, glufosinate plus pyraflufen-ethyl or sulfentrazone was antagonistic at 8 WAA. In study 2, similar doses of saflufenacil were required for 50%, 80%, and 95% GR horseweed control whether glufosinate was included in the mixture or not. Interactions between glufosinate (300 g ai ha–1) plus saflufenacil at 1.56, 3.13, 6.25, and 12.5 g ai ha–1 were antagonistic at 2, 4, and 8 WAA at sites 1, 2, and 3; all other interactions were additive. The results of this research indicate there was little to no benefit of adding very low rates of PPO-inhibiting herbicides to glufosinate to improve GR horseweed control under field conditions.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed [Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist; syn.: Erigeron canadensis L.] interference can substantially reduce corn (Zea mays L.) yield. The complementary activity of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) and photosystem II (PSII) inhibitors has been investigated for the control of several weed species, and in many cases has been synergistic; however, there is little information on the interaction of HPPD- and PSII-inhibiting herbicides for postemergence control of GR C. canadensis in corn. Four field trials were studied over 2 yr (2019, 2020) in Ontario, Canada, in commercial corn fields with natural infestations of GR C. canadensis to evaluate the level of GR C. canadensis control with three HPPD-inhibiting herbicides (mesotrione, tolpyralate, and topramezone) and three PSII-inhibiting herbicides (atrazine, bromoxynil, and bentazon) applied individually and in tank-mix combinations, and to document the interaction of the three HPPD inhibitors tank mixed with the three PSII inhibitors. Mesotrione, tolpyralate, and topramezone controlled GR C. canadensis 83%, 84%, and 72%, respectively, at 8 wk after application (WAA). Bromoxynil and bentazon controlled GR C. canadensis 71% and 79%, respectively, while atrazine provided only 31% control at 8 WAA. The joint application of atrazine, bromoxynil, or bentazon with mesotrione increased GR C. canadensis control from 83% to 100% at 8 WAA. Tolpyralate tank mixed with atrazine, bromoxynil, or bentazon controlled GR C. canadensis 96%, 98%, and 98%, respectively, which was comparable to the mesotrione tank mixes at 8 WAA. Topramezone plus atrazine, bromoxynil, or bentazon controlled GR C. canadensis 91%, 93%, and 95%, respectively, at 8 WAA. Interactions between HPPD and PSII inhibitors were synergistic for all combinations of mesotrione or tolpyralate with atrazine, bromoxynil, or bentazon. The interaction between topramezone and PSII inhibitors was additive. All nine tank mixes controlled GR C. canadensis >90%. This study concludes that bromoxynil or bentazon, instead of atrazine, can be co-applied with mesotrione, tolpyralate, or topramezone without compromising GR C. canadensis control in corn.
Two studies were conducted to ascertain the biologically effective dose (BED) of flumioxazin and pyroxasulfone for multiple herbicide–resistant (MHR) waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) Sauer] control in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in southwestern Ontario, Canada, during 2016 and 2017. In the flumioxazin study, the predicted flumioxazin doses for 50%, 80%, and 90% MHR A. tuberculatus control were 19, 37, and 59 g ai ha−1 at 2 wk after application (WAA) and 31, 83, and 151 g ai ha−1, respectively, at 12 WAA. The predicted flumioxazin doses to cause 5% and 10% soybean injury were 129 and 404 g ai ha−1, respectively, at 2 wk after emergence (WAE), and the predicted flumioxazin doses to obtain 50%, 80%, and 95% of the weed-free control plot’s yield were determined to be 3, 14, and 65 g ai ha−1, respectively. In the pyroxasulfone study, the predicted pyroxasulfone doses that provided 50%, 80%, and 90% MHR A. tuberculatus visible control were 25, 50, and 88 g ai ha−1 at 2 WAA and 41, 109, and 274 g ai ha−1 at 12 WAA, respectively. The dose of pyroxasulfone predicted for 80% reduction in MHR A. tuberculatus density was 117 g ai ha−1, and the doses of pyroxasulfone predicted for 80% and 90% reduction in A. tuberculatus biomass were 204 and 382 g ai ha−1, respectively. The predicted doses of pyroxasulfone that caused 5% and 10% injury in soybean at 2 WAE were 585 and 698 g ai ha−1, respectively. The predicted doses of pyroxasulfone required to obtain 50%, 80%, and 95% yield relative to the weed-free plots were 6, 24, and 112 g ai ha−1, respectively. Flumioxazin and pyroxasulfone applied preemergence at the appropriate doses provided early-season MHR A. tuberculatus control in soybean.
Photosystem II (PS II)-inhibitor herbicide resistance in Ontario waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) Sauer] populations is conferred via target-site resistance (TSR) and non–target site resistance (NTSR) mechanisms. Metribuzin-resistant (MR) A. tuberculatus is due to TSR. Conversely, in other populations of PS II–inhibitor resistant A. tuberculatus, plants are resistant to atrazine but metribuzin sensitive (MS). The objective of this study was to determine the biologically effective dose of metribuzin applied preemergence and postemergence for the control of MS and MR A. tuberculatus. Ten field experiments were conducted in 2019 and 2020 to determine the effective doses of metribuzin for 50%, 80%, and 95% control of MS and MR A. tuberculatus. Metribuzin applied preemergence at the calculated doses of 133, 350, and 1,070 g ai ha−1 controlled MS A. tuberculatus 50%, 80%, and 95%, respectively, whereas the calculated doses of 7,868 and 17,533 g ai ha−1 controlled MR A. tuberculatus 50% and 80%, respectively, at 12 wk after application (WAA). Metribuzin applied postemergence at the calculated doses of 245 and 1,480 g ai ha−1 controlled MS A. tuberculatus 50% and 80%, respectively; the calculated dose for 50% MR A. tuberculatus control was greater than the highest dose (17,920 g ai ha−1) included in this study. Metribuzin at 560 and 1,120 g ha−1 and pyroxasulfone/flumioxazin (240 g ai ha−1) applied preemergence controlled MS A. tuberculatus 88%, 95%, and 98%, respectively, at 12 WAA, whereas the same treatments only controlled MR A. tuberculatus 0%, 4%, and 93%, respectively, at 12 WAA. Metribuzin at 560 and 1,120 g ha−1 and fomesafen (240 g ai ha−1) applied postemergence controlled MS A. tuberculatus 65%, 70%, and 78%, and MR A. tuberculatus 0%, 1%, and 49%, respectively, at 12 WAA. Based on these results, PS II–inhibitor resistant A. tuberculatus with NTSR (enhanced metabolism) is controlled with metribuzin applied preemergence and postemergence; in contrast, PS II–inhibitor resistant A. tuberculatus with TSR (glycine-264-serine altered target site) is not controlled with metribuzin.
Glyphosate resistance in weed species has presented immense challenges for farmers in Ontario. The co-application of burndown plus residual herbicides provides control of glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed in soybean. Pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D is a premixed herbicide formulation sold under the tradename Blackhawk®. Five field experiments were conducted over a 2-yr period (2019, 2020) in fields in southwestern Ontario to ascertain the biologically effective dose of pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D, applied alone, or mixed with metribuzin, for GR horseweed control when applied preplant to soybean. Soybean visible injury for all treatments was <15%. At 8 wk after application (WAA), the calculated doses of pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D for 50%, 80%, and 95% control of GR horseweed were 390, 1,148, and >2,108 g ha−1, respectively. The addition of metribuzin to pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D reduced the doses of pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D for 50%, 80%, and 95% control of GR horseweed to 19, 46, and 201 g ha−1, respectively. Pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D + metribuzin controlled GR horseweed by 97%, which is comparable to the current industry standards. Based on these results, pyraflufen-ethyl/2,4-D + metribuzin (527 + 400 g ha−1) applied preplant can be used for GR horseweed control in soybean.
Tiafenacil is a recently developed protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicide from the pyrimidinedione chemical class that is proposed for use as a preplant (PP) burndown in soybean. Glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed is a troublesome weed often found in no-till systems that can dramatically reduce soybean yield; control in soybean has been variable. Five field experiments were conducted over 2019 and 2020 in commercial soybean fields with GR horseweed to determine the biologically effective dose (BED) of tiafenacil and tiafenacil + metribuzin and to compare their efficacy to currently accepted industry standard herbicide treatments in identity-preserved (IP, non-GMO), GR, and glyphosate/dicamba-resistant (GDR) soybean systems. There was no soybean injury with treatments evaluated. The calculated doses of tiafenacil for 50%, 80%, and 95% control of GR horseweed control were 21, 147, and >200 g ai ha−1, respectively, at 8 wk after application (WAA). Lower doses were calculated with the addition of metribuzin (400 g ai ha−1) to tiafenacil for 50% and 80% control, with no dose of tiafenacil + metribuzin providing 95% control. Tiafenacil + metribuzin at 25 + 400 and 50 + 400 g ai ha−1 controlled GR horseweed 88% and 93%, respectively, which was similar to the industry standards of saflufenacil + metribuzin (25 + 400 g ai ha−1) and glyphosate/dicamba + saflufenacil (1,200/600 + 25 g ai ha−1) that provided 98% and 100% control, respectively, at 8 WAA. This study presents the potential utility of tiafenacil + metribuzin as a GR horseweed management strategy in soybean.