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Perovskites are promising functional materials for their optoelectronic properties and anion migration plays a key role in their functional performance [1-3]. By using in-situ (S)TEM mechanical and electrical testing in conjunction with 4D-STEM [4,5], we directly observed/probed anion migration in perovskites at atomic resolution (see Figure 1). Here, we studied the mechanism for the anion migration in perovskites such as (PbZr)TiO3 and BaTiO3, which is induced under the mechnaicl/electrical loading. To avoid the influence of the electron beam, we carried out the in-situ (S)TEM study at 60kv with low dose. And to avoid the possible strong size effect and the substrate (interface) influence, we prepared free-standing sub-micrometer single-crystalline structures to perform the experiments. Corresponding EDS and EELS examinations were performed to measure the local chemical change with applied stress and electrical currents. Our observations revealed the coexistence of multiple phase structures and hierarchical domain structures, as well as the greatly enhanced anion drifting and diffusion at the charged domain walls (Figure 2) and phase boundaries. The complex interaction between the local domain evolution and phase transition has been discussed. Based on above investigations, a model for anion migration in perovskire under mechanical/electrical loading has been presented.
Recent work has revived interest in the scattering matrix formulation of electron scattering in transmission electron microscopy as a stepping stone toward atomic-resolution structure determination in the presence of multiple scattering. We discuss ways of visualizing the scattering matrix that make its properties clear. Through a simulation-based case study incorporating shot noise, we shown how regularizing on this continuity enables the scattering matrix to be reconstructed from 4D scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) measurements from a single defocus value. Intriguingly, for crystalline samples, this process also yields the sample thickness to nanometer accuracy with no a priori knowledge about the sample structure. The reconstruction quality is gauged by using the reconstructed scattering matrix to simulate STEM images at defocus values different from that of the data from which it was reconstructed.
Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is an extremely versatile method for studying materials on the atomic scale. Many STEM experiments are supported or validated with electron scattering simulations. However, using the conventional multislice algorithm to perform these simulations can require extremely large calculation times, particularly for experiments with millions of probe positions as each probe position must be simulated independently. Recently, the plane-wave reciprocal-space interpolated scattering matrix (PRISM) algorithm was developed to reduce calculation times for large STEM simulations. Here, we introduce a new method for STEM simulation: partitioning of the STEM probe into “beamlets,” given by a natural neighbor interpolation of the parent beams. This idea is compatible with PRISM simulations and can lead to even larger improvements in simulation time, as well requiring significantly less computer random access memory (RAM). We have performed various simulations to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of partitioned PRISM STEM simulations. We find that this new algorithm is particularly useful for 4D-STEM simulations of large fields of view. We also provide a reference implementation of the multislice, PRISM, and partitioned PRISM algorithms.
High-throughput grain mapping with sub-nanometer spatial resolution is demonstrated using scanning nanobeam electron diffraction (also known as 4D scanning transmission electron microscopy, or 4D-STEM) combined with high-speed direct-electron detection. An electron probe size down to 0.5 nm in diameter is used and the sample investigated is a gold–palladium nanoparticle catalyst. Computational analysis of the 4D-STEM data sets is performed using a disk registration algorithm to identify the diffraction peaks followed by feature learning to map the individual grains. Two unsupervised feature learning techniques are compared: principal component analysis (PCA) and non-negative matrix factorization (NNMF). The characteristics of the PCA versus NNMF output are compared and the potential of the 4D-STEM approach for statistical analysis of grain orientations at high spatial resolution is discussed.
Phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a powerful tool for imaging the local atomic structure of materials. TEM has been used heavily in studies of defect structures of two-dimensional materials such as monolayer graphene due to its high dose efficiency. However, phase-contrast imaging can produce complex nonlinear contrast, even for weakly scattering samples. It is, therefore, difficult to develop fully automated analysis routines for phase-contrast TEM studies using conventional image processing tools. For automated analysis of large sample regions of graphene, one of the key problems is segmentation between the structure of interest and unwanted structures such as surface contaminant layers. In this study, we compare the performance of a conventional Bragg filtering method with a deep learning routine based on the U-Net architecture. We show that the deep learning method is more general, simpler to apply in practice, and produces more accurate and robust results than the conventional algorithm. We provide easily adaptable source code for all results in this paper and discuss potential applications for deep learning in fully automated TEM image analysis.