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Our goal was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the use of intravenous lidocaine in pediatrics for status epilepticus (SE) and refractory status epilepticus (RSE) to determine its impact on seizure control.
All articles from MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, HealthStar, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (inception to November 2014), and gray literature were searched. The strength of evidence was adjudicated using both the Oxford and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodologies by two independent reviewers.
Overall, 20 original studies were identified, with 19 manuscripts and one meeting abstract. Two hundred and thirty-five pediatric patients were treated for 252 episodes of SE/RSE. Patients had varying numbers of antiepileptic drugs (two to eight) on board before lidocaine therapy. During 20 of the 252 (7.9%) episodes of SE/RSE, phenytoin was on board. The dose regimen of lidocaine varied, with some using bolus dosing alone; others used a combination of bolus and infusion therapy. Overall, 60.0% of seizures responded to lidocaine, with complete cessation and greater than 50% reduction seen in 57.6% and 12.3%, respectively. Patient outcomes were sparingly reported.
There currently exists Oxford level 2b, Grading of Recommendations Assessment Developement, and Evaluation C evidence to support the consideration of lidocaine for SE and RSE in the pediatric population. Further prospective studies of lidocaine administration in this setting are warranted.
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