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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality with an estimated annual incidence of 295 per 100 000.1 Injury severity is broad and can range from mild, difficult to detect cognitive effects to profound disturbances of consciousness with prolonged coma and persistent vegetative state. The optimal modality and utility of neuroimaging depends not only on the mechanism and severity of injury but also the time since injury occurred and the information that is being sought out. The purpose of imaging patients with TBI includes guiding immediate treatment decisions, and prognostication of health outcome in the acute setting along with research into head injury pathophysiology. Indeed, recent advances in imaging techniques have allowed greater understanding of both structural and functional changes that occur after TBI. This review will briefly outline the techniques available for TBI and their usefulness in both clinical and research settings.