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To examine knowledge and attitudes about influenza vaccination and infection prevention practices among healthcare personnel (HCP) in a long-term-care (LTC) setting.
Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) survey.
An LTC facility in St Louis, Missouri.
All HCP working at the LTC facility were eligible to participate, regardless of department or position. Of 170 full- and part-time HCP working at the facility, 73 completed the survey, a 42.9% response rate.
Most HCP agreed that respiratory viral infections were serious and that hand hygiene and face mask use were protective. However, only 46% could describe the correct transmission-based precautions for an influenza patient. Correctly answering infection prevention knowledge questions did not vary by years of experience but did vary for HCP with more direct patient contact versus less patient contact. Furthermore, 42% of respondents reported working while sick, and 56% reported that their coworkers did. In addition, 54% reported that facility policies made staying home while ill difficult. Some respondents expressed concerns about the safety (22%) and effectiveness (27%) of the influenza vaccine, and 28% of respondents stated that they would not get the influenza vaccine if it was not required.
This survey of staff in an LTC facility identified several areas for policy improvement, particularly sick leave, as well as potential targets for interventions to improve infection prevention knowledge and to address HCP concerns about influenza vaccination to improve HCP vaccination rates in LTCs.
To evaluate a central line care maintenance bundle to reduce central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) in non–intensive care unit settings.
Before-after trial with 12-month follow-up period.
A 1,250-bed teaching hospital.
Patients with central lines on 8 general medicine wards. Four wards received the intervention and 4 served as controls.
A multifaceted catheter care maintenance bundle consisting of educational programs for nurses, update of hospital policies, visual aids, a competency assessment, process monitoring, regular progress reports, and consolidation of supplies necessary for catheter maintenance.
Data were collected for 25,542 catheter-days including 43 CLABSI (rate, 1.68 per 1,000 catheter-days) and 4,012 catheter dressing observations. Following the intervention, a 2.5% monthly decrease in the CLABSI incidence density was observed on intervention floors but this was not statistically significant (95% CI, −5.3% to 0.4%). On control floors, there was a smaller but marginally significant decrease in CLABSI incidence during the study (change in monthly rate, −1.1%; 95% CI, −2.1% to −0.1%). Implementation of the bundle was associated with improvement in catheter dressing compliance on intervention wards (78.8% compliance before intervention vs 87.9% during intervention/follow-up; P<.001) but improvement was also observed on control wards (84.9% compliance before intervention vs 90.9% during intervention/follow-up; P=.001).
A multifaceted program to improve catheter care was associated with improvement in catheter dressing care but no change in CLABSI rates. Additional study is needed to determine strategies to prevent CLABSI in non–intensive care unit patients.
The outcome for opiate-dependent patients seeking abstinence is unclear in this era of improved access to methadone maintenance.
To measure the outcome 2–3 years after in-patient treatment.
Opiate-dependent patients admitted with a goal of abstinence were followed-up. A structured interview examined drug use and treatment in the preceding month.
Five patients had died and 109 (76%) of the remaining 144 were interviewed. Fifty per cent (54 patients) reported recent opiate misuse and 57% (62) were on methadone maintenance. Twenty-three per cent (25 patients) were abstinent (i.e. neither using opiates nor on methadone maintenance). Abstinence was significantly associated with completion of the 6-week in-patient treatment programme and attendance at out-patient after-care, and negatively associated with a family history of substance misuse.
Abstinence remains an attainable goal. As the principal influence on outcome was treatment adherence, inpatient services should seek to enhance rates of programme completion. Aftercare should be provided to patients. We caution against use of pre-treatment patient characteristics as criteria for prioritising access to in-patient treatment.
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