The interpretation of chromospheric and coronal spectra requires accurate ionization and recombination rates, collision strengths and transition probabilities. Recent projects to improve calculations of opacities in stellar interiors have led to a large amount of new atomic data. Some current and potential applications of atomic data to chromospheric and coronal spectra are mentioned below.
Strong chromospheric lines are optically thick, and the solution of the radiative transfer equations can depend on atomic data for other species contributing to the background opacity. Many lines in the spectra of stars with hot coronae are excited by electron collisions, but in the cooler non-coronal giants radiative processes involving the H Lyman α and β lines become more important (see Jordan 1988a). Photo-ionization rates from ground configuration excited terms and oscillator strengths to high levels are still needed.
Fe II is an important ion producing emission lines in stellar chromospheres. Several excitation mechanisms contribute to the observed spectra (Jordan 1988b). Permitted lines to the ground term and low lying metastable terms have high optical depths and transfer photons to spin forbidden lines sharing a common upper level (e.g. mults. uv 1 and uv 3 transfer photons to mults. uv 32 and 61). Line intensity ratios yield the optical depth in the optically thick lines. The strong H Ly α line in cool giants and supergiants excites high levels in Fe II, resulting in strong decays in multiplets such as uv 391 and 399. A large number of f-values are required to interpret the lines formed by these radiative processes. Nahar & Pradhan (1994) have published some results from the Opacity Project, calculated by using the close coupling method and observed energy levels (which introduce some allowance for relativistic effects). In most cases these f-values agree with experimental results and the calculations by Kurucz (1988) to within 10%. The latter are still needed for the interpretation of stellar uv spectra because of the treatment of spin-forbidden lines.