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Current psychiatric diagnoses, although heritable, have not been clearly mapped onto distinct underlying pathogenic processes. The same symptoms often occur in multiple disorders, and a substantial proportion of both genetic and environmental risk factors are shared across disorders. However, the relationship between shared symptoms and shared genetic liability is still poorly understood.
Well-characterised, cross-disorder samples are needed to investigate this matter, but few currently exist. Our aim is to develop procedures to purposely curate and aggregate genotypic and phenotypic data in psychiatric research.
As part of the Cardiff MRC Mental Health Data Pathfinder initiative, we have curated and harmonised phenotypic and genetic information from 15 studies to create a new data repository, DRAGON-Data. To date, DRAGON-Data includes over 45 000 individuals: adults and children with neurodevelopmental or psychiatric diagnoses, affected probands within collected families and individuals who carry a known neurodevelopmental risk copy number variant.
We have processed the available phenotype information to derive core variables that can be reliably analysed across groups. In addition, all data-sets with genotype information have undergone rigorous quality control, imputation, copy number variant calling and polygenic score generation.
DRAGON-Data combines genetic and non-genetic information, and is available as a resource for research across traditional psychiatric diagnostic categories. Algorithms and pipelines used for data harmonisation are currently publicly available for the scientific community, and an appropriate data-sharing protocol will be developed as part of ongoing projects (DATAMIND) in partnership with Health Data Research UK.
Antarctic and Southern Ocean environments are facing increasing pressure from multiple threats. The Antarctic Treaty System regularly looks to the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) for the provision of independent and objective advice based on the best available science to support decision-making, policy development and effective environmental management. The recently approved SCAR Scientific Research Programme Ant-ICON - ‘Integrated Science to Inform Antarctic and Southern Ocean Conservation‘ - facilitates and coordinates high-quality transdisciplinary research to inform the conservation and management of Antarctica, the Southern Ocean and the sub-Antarctic in the context of current and future impacts. The work of Ant-ICON focuses on three research themes examining 1) the current state and future projections of Antarctic systems, species and functions, 2) human impacts and sustainability and 3) socio-ecological approaches to Antarctic and Southern Ocean conservation, and one synthesis theme that seeks to facilitate the provision of timely scientific advice to support effective Antarctic conservation. Research outputs will address the most pressing environmental challenges facing Antarctica and offer high-quality science to policy and advisory bodies including the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting, the Committee for Environmental Protection and the Scientific Committee of the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources.
Racial disparities in colorectal cancer (CRC) can be addressed through increased adherence to screening guidelines. In real-life encounters, patients may be more willing to follow screening recommendations delivered by a race concordant clinician. The growth of telehealth to deliver care provides an opportunity to explore whether these effects translate to a virtual setting. The primary purpose of this pilot study is to explore the relationships between virtual clinician (VC) characteristics and CRC screening intentions after engagement with a telehealth intervention leveraging technology to deliver tailored CRC prevention messaging.
Using a posttest-only design with three factors (VC race-matching, VC gender, intervention type), participants (N = 2267) were randomised to one of eight intervention treatments. Participants self-reported perceptions and behavioral intentions.
The benefits of matching participants with a racially similar VC trended positive but did not reach statistical significance. Specifically, race-matching positively influenced screening intentions for Black participants but not for Whites (b = 0.29, p = 0.10). Importantly, perceptions of credibility, attractiveness, and message relevance significantly influenced screening intentions and the relationship with race-matching.
To reduce racial CRC screening disparities, investments are needed to identify patient-focused interventions to address structural barriers to screening. This study suggests that telehealth interventions that match Black patients with a Black VC can enhance perceptions of credibility and message relevance, which may then improve screening intentions. Future research is needed to examine how to increase VC credibility and attractiveness, as well as message relevance without race-matching.
It was always recognition that one thing that conspicuously distinguishes women from men is that only women become pregnant; and if you subject a woman to disadvantageous treatment on the basis of her pregnant status, which was what was happening to Captain Struck, you would be denying her equal treatment under the law.
Fatty acid (FA) levels and profiles are vital for soybean oil quality, while cytokinins (CKs) and abscisic acid (ABA) are potent regulators of plant growth and development. Previous research suggested associations between FA biosynthesis and hormonal signalling networks; however, hormonal regulation of FA accumulation during soybean (Glycine max) seed maturation has never been measured. We analysed hormone and FA profiles obtained from HPLC-(ESI)-MS/MS and GC-FID screening during soybean seed maturation. A multilayered data processing approach, involving heat-maps, principal component analysis (PCA), correlation and multiregression models, suggested a strong relationship between hormone metabolism and FA/oil accumulation during seed maturation. Most strikingly, positive correlations were found between the levels of CK ribosides [transZeatin riboside (tZR), N6-isopentenyladenosine (iPR)] at the early stages of SM (R5-R6) and C18:0, C18:2 and oil content at the R8 stage. Moreover, multiple regression models revealed functional linkages between several CK derivatives and FA and oil content in mature seeds. To further test the significance of hormone regulation in FA metabolism, plants of two soybean accessions with contrasting hormone and FA profiles were sprayed with exogenous ABA and transZeatin (tZ) during the seed-filling period (R5-R6). Depending on the hormone type and concentration, these treatments distinctly modified biosynthesis of all tested FAs, except for C18:0. Most remarkably, tZ (50 nM) promoted production of C16:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, and oil accumulation in maturing seeds. Overall, the results indicate impactful roles for ABA and CKs in FA accumulation during SM and represent a further step towards understanding FA biosynthesis, and potential improvements of soybean oil profiles.
The Southern dietary pattern, derived within the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort, is characterised by high consumption of added fats, fried food, organ meats, processed meats and sugar-sweetened beverages and is associated with increased risk of several chronic diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify characteristics of individuals with high adherence to this dietary pattern. We analysed data from REGARDS, a national cohort of 30 239 black and white adults ≥45 years of age living in the USA. Dietary data were collected using the Block 98 FFQ. Multivariable linear regression was used to calculate standardised beta coefficients across all covariates for the entire sample and stratified by race and region. We included 16 781 participants with complete dietary data. Among these, 34·6 % were black, 45·6 % male, 55·2 % resided in stroke belt region and the average age was 65 years. Black race was the factor with the largest magnitude of association with the Southern dietary pattern (Δ = 0·76 sd, P < 0·0001). Large differences in Southern dietary pattern adherence were observed between black participants and white participants in the stroke belt and non-belt (stroke belt Δ = 0·75 sd, non-belt Δ = 0·77 sd). There was a high consumption of the Southern dietary pattern in the US black population, regardless of other factors, underlying our previous findings showing the substantial contribution of this dietary pattern to racial disparities in incident hypertension and stroke.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
The genetic variation and taxonomic status of the four morphologically-defined species of Macropostrongyloides in Australian macropodid and vombatid marsupials were examined using sequence data of the ITS+ region (=first and second internal transcribed spacers, and the 5.8S rRNA gene) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The results of the phylogenetic analyses revealed that Ma. baylisi was a species complex consisting of four genetically distinct groups, some of which are host-specific. In addition, Ma. lasiorhini in the common wombat (Vombatus ursinus) did not form a monophyletic clade with Ma. lasiorhini from the southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons), suggesting the possibility of cryptic (genetically distinct but morphologically similar) species. There was also some genetic divergence between Ma. dissimilis in swamp wallabies (Wallabia bicolor) from different geographical regions. In contrast, there was no genetic divergence among specimens of Ma. yamagutii across its broad geographical range or between host species (i.e. Macropus fuliginosus and M. giganteus). Macropostrongyloides dissimilis represented the sister taxon to Ma. baylisi, Ma. yamagutii and Ma. lasiorhini. Further morphological and molecular studies are required to assess the species complex of Ma. baylisi.
Emerging literature suggests fathers may contribute uniquely to child development and emotional health through play. In the present study, a multiple mediational model was analyzed using data from 476 families that participated in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. After accounting for infant–mother attachment, infant temperament, and family income and stability, a significant indirect effect from father–child play quality to adolescent internalizing symptoms was found through father-reported child emotional dysregulation, B = –.05, 95% confidence interval; CI [–.14, –.01]. Specifically, in first grade, dyads where fathers were rated highly on sensitivity and stimulation during play, and children demonstrated high felt security and affective mutuality during play, had children with fewer father-reported emotional dysregulation problems in third grade, B = –.23, 95% CI [–.39, –.06]. Children with fewer emotional dysregulation problems had lower self-reported internalizing symptoms at age 15, B = .23, 95% CI [.01, .45]. Mothers’ ratings of children's emotional dysregulation were not a significant mediator. Results are discussed regarding the importance of father–child play for children's adjustment as well as the usefulness of inclusion of fathers in child developmental research.
Foodborne non-typhoidal salmonellosis causes approximately 1 million illnesses annually in the USA. In April 2015, we investigated a multistate outbreak of 65 Salmonella Paratyphi B variant L(+) tartrate(+) infections associated with frozen raw tuna imported from Indonesia, which was consumed raw in sushi. Forty-six (92%) of 50 case-patients interviewed ate sushi during the week before illness onset, and 44 (98%) of 45 who specified ate sushi containing raw tuna. Two outbreak strains were isolated from the samples of frozen raw tuna. Traceback identified a single importer as a common source of tuna consumed by case-patients; this importer issued three voluntary recalls of tuna sourced from one Indonesian processor. Four Salmonella Weltevreden infections were also linked to this outbreak. Whole-genome sequencing was useful in establishing a link between Salmonella isolated from ill people and tuna. This outbreak highlights the continuing foodborne illness risk associated with raw seafood consumption, the importance of processing seafood in a manner that minimises contamination with pathogenic microorganisms and the continuing need to ensure imported foods are safe to eat. People at higher risk for foodborne illness should not consume undercooked animal products, such as raw seafood.
Non-exercise physical activity (NEPA) and/or non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) reductions may occur from diet and/or exercise-induced negative energy balance interventions, resulting in less-than-expected weight loss. This systematic review describes the effects of prescribed diet and/or physical activity (PA)/exercise on NEPA and/or NEAT in adults. Studies were identified from PubMed, web-of-knowledge, Embase, SPORTDiscus, ERIC and PsycINFO searches up to 1 March 2017. Eligibility criteria included randomised controlled trials (RCT), randomised trials (RT) and non-randomised trials (NRT); objective measures of PA and energy expenditure; data on NEPA, NEAT and spontaneous PA; ≥10 healthy male/female aged>18 years; and ≥7 d length. The trial is registered at PROSPERO-2017-CRD42017052635. In all, thirty-six articles (RCT-10, RT-9, NRT-17) with a total of seventy intervention arms (diet, exercise, combined diet/exercise), with a total of 1561 participants, were included. Compensation was observed in twenty-six out of seventy intervention arms (fifteen studies out of thirty-six reporting declines in NEAT (eight), NEPA (four) or both (three)) representing 63, 27 and 23 % of diet-only, combined diet/exercise, and exercise-only intervention arms, respectively. Weight loss observed in participants who decreased NEAT was double the weight loss found in those who did not compensate, suggesting that the energy imbalance degree may lead to energy conservation. Although these findings do not support the hypothesis that prescribed diet and/or exercise results in decreased NEAT and NEPA in healthy adults, the underpowered trial design and the lack of state-of-the-art methods may limit these conclusions. Future studies should explore the impact of weight-loss magnitude, energetic restriction degree, exercise dose and participant characteristics on NEAT and/or NEPA.
We carry out a numerical study of the quantum walk search algorithm of Shenvi, Kempe and Whaley Shenvi et al. (2003) and the factors that affect its efficiency in finding an individual state from an unsorted set. Previous work has focused purely on the effects of the dimensionality of the dataset to be searched. In the current paper we consider the effects of interpolating between dimensions, the connectivity of the dataset and the possibility of disorder in the underlying substrate: all these factors affect the efficiency of the search algorithm. We show that in addition to the strong dependence on the spatial dimension of the structure to be searched, there are also secondary dependencies on the connectivity and symmetry of the lattice, with greater connectivity providing a more efficient algorithm. We also show that the algorithm can tolerate a non-trivial level of disorder in the underlying substrate.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: This research project envisions the integration of Homeless Management Information System (HMIS) and UI Health Cerner electronic medical record (EMR) system with the following goals: (1) enable sharing of data about the status of the housing insecure and homeless. (2) Identify and match patient record accurately. (3) Record housing insecurity or homelessness information with structured data elements in the EMR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We created a Master Person Index (MPI) of the homeless individuals from HMSI using OpenEMPI software package, which is an open source implementation of an Enterprise Master Patient Index (EMPI). An entity model was generated based on the selective data elements from HMIS database, which were relevant for the patient identity management and healthcare service management. An automated script was implemented to extract data from HMIS and load it into OpenEMPI to build the MPI. Once the MPI is setup, the Emergency Department users were able to perform patient identity matching and confirm housing insecure or homeless status of their patients by querying the index using the web-based tool. We developed structured data elements to record homelessness information, which will allow us to measure the prevalence of this risk among patients. We are also exploring the possibility to integrate the systems the using the IHE PIX/PDQ profile, which provides ways for healthcare applications to query a patient information server for a patient based on user-defined search criteria, and retrieve a patient’s information directly into the application. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We implemented a MPI of homeless individuals, which would allow the emergency department users to perform patient identity matching of housing insecure or homeless patients, without undue privacy intrusions. We are confident that IHE PIX/PDQ profile is able to support the integration of healthcare and housing and homeless services systems and enable the data sharing in an efficient way. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The project addressed the gap in the sharing of data about housing insecure or homeless persons between healthcare and housing and social services that will result in improvements in coordination of care, reduce the cycle time from recognition of risk to the referral to housing and services and improve health outcomes and residential stability. Successful completion of this integration project will give us a model that we can scale to many other communities.
The use of underground geological repositories, such as in radioactive waste disposal (RWD) and in carbon capture (widely known as Carbon Capture and Storage; CCS), constitutes a key environmental priority for the 21st century. Based on the identification of key scientific questions relating to the geophysics, geochemistry and geobiology of geodisposal of wastes, this paper describes the possibility of technology transfer from high-technology areas of the space exploration sector, including astrobiology, planetary sciences, astronomy, and also particle and nuclear physics, into geodisposal. Synergies exist between high technology used in the space sector and in the characterization of underground environments such as repositories, because of common objectives with respect to instrument miniaturization, low power requirements, durability under extreme conditions (in temperature and mechanical loads) and operation in remote or otherwise difficult to access environments.
Different growth rates of young seedlings (genets) and plants grown from root pieces (ramets) of yellow toadflax could influence their respective competitive ability and their susceptibility to management techniques. Shoot production was similar for genets and ramets (approximately 10 shoots were produced 12 or 13 wk after transplanting or cotyledon appearance, respectively), but the rate of shoot biomass accumulation was higher for genets than for ramets. Genets consistently produced more underground shoots than ramets. Replanted underground shoots separated from their roots were able to produce new shoots and roots. Rate of elongation for roots 0.5 to 1.5 mm in diameter was higher for ramets than for genets, but their shoot production potential was the same. Root pieces from genets did not have the ability to produce daughter shoots until 3 wk after cotyledon appearance. This indicates that very young genets would be more susceptible than older genets or ramets to management control systems.
Sleep can affect quality of life (QoL) during cancer survivorship, and symptoms related to poor sleep can be exacerbated. We examined the prevalence, severity, and nature of subjective sleep complaints in women surviving stage I–III breast cancer who were 1–10 years posttreatment. We also examined the demographic, medical, physical, and psychosocial correlates of poor sleep in these women in order to identify the subgroups that may be most in need of intervention.
A total of 200 patients at a comprehensive cancer center who were 1–10 years posttreatment for primary stage I–III breast cancer with no evidence of disease at the time of enrollment completed a battery of questionnaires on demographics, sleep, physical symptoms, mood, cancer-specific fears, and QoL.
The women had a mean age of 57 years (SD = 10.0), with a mean of 63.3 months (SD = 28.8) of post-cancer treatment. Some 38% of these patients were identified as having poor-quality sleep. Women with poor sleep took longer to fall asleep, had more awakenings, and acquired 2 hours less sleep per night than those with good sleep. They also had a lower QoL, greater severity of pain, more concerns about health and recurrence, and increased vasomotor symptoms (p < 0.05). Daytime sleepiness and depression were found to be not significantly correlated with sleep quality.
Significance of results:
Many breast cancer survivors had severe subjective insomnia, and several breast cancer survivor subgroups were identified as having members who might be most in need of sleep-improvement interventions. Addressing physical symptoms (e.g., vasomotor symptoms and pain) and providing education about the behavioral, social, environmental, and medical factors that affect sleep could result in substantial improvement in the life course of breast cancer survivors.
Objectives: Patient Web portals (PWPs) have been gaining traction as a means to collect patient-reported outcomes and maintain quality patient care between office visits. PWPs have the potential to impact patient–provider relationships by rendering additional channels for communication outside of clinic visits and could help in the management of common chronic medical conditions. Studies documenting their effect in primary care settings are limited. This perspective aims to summarize the benefits and drawbacks of using PWPs in the management of chronic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and asthma, focusing on communication, disease management, compliance, potential barriers, and the impact on patient–provider dynamic. After a review of these topics, we present potential future directions.
Methods: We conducted an exploratory PubMed search of the literature published from inception through December 2015, and focused our subsequent searches specifically to assess benefits and drawbacks of using PWPs in the management of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and asthma.
Results: Our search revealed several potential benefits of PWP implementation in the management of chronic conditions with regards to patient–provider relationships, such as improved communication, disease management, and compliance. We also noted drawbacks such as potentially unreliable reporting, barriers to use, and increased workload.
Conclusions: PWPs offer opportunities for patients to report symptoms and outcomes in a timely manner and allow for secure online communication with providers. Despite the drawbacks noted, the overall benefits from successful PWP implementation could improve patient–provider relationships and help in the management of chronic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and asthma.
The purpose of this work was to determine whether the morphology of the oral mucosa epithelium (OME) of patients with xerostomia differ from patients without xerostomia. In total, 34 patients with dry eye disease (DED) with or without xerostomia were examined at The Norwegian Dry Eye Disease Clinic with in vivo confocal microscopy of the lower lip. In addition, age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) were included. DED patients with xerostomia had a higher superficial to deep backscatter ratio compared with DED patients without xerostomia (p=0.002) and HC (p=0.001). Regression analysis demonstrated that this ratio was related to xerostomia independently of gender and age (p<0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of detecting xerostomia were 0.78 and 0.85, respectively, when using a superficial to deep backscatter ratio cut-off value of 0.995 (p=0.004). The mean nucleus to cytosol backscatter ratio in the superficial OME was lower in patients with xerostomia than in those without xerostomia (p=0.034). In vivo confocal microscopy is a potential tool for evaluating the oral cavity and to assess changes in the OME associated with xerostomia, objectively and quantitatively. The cause of the increased backscatter in the superficial OME in xerostomia, however, remains to be elucidated.
Medusahead is one of the most problematic rangeland weeds in the western United States. In previous studies, prescribed burning has been used successfully to control medusahead in some situations, but burning has failed in other circumstances. In this study, trials were conducted using the same protocol at four locations in central to northern California to evaluate plant community response to two consecutive years of summer burning and to determine the conditions resulting in successful medusahead control. During 2002 through 2003 large-scale experiments were established at two low-elevation, warm-winter sites (Fresno and Yolo counties) and two higher elevation, cool-winter sites (Siskiyou and Modoc counties). Plant species cover was estimated using point-intercept transects, and biomass samples were taken in each plot. After 2 yr of burning, medusahead cover was reduced by 99, 96, and 93% for Fresno, Yolo, and Siskiyou counties, respectively, compared to unburned control plots. Other annual grasses were also reduced, but less severely, and broadleaf species increased at all three sites. In contrast, 2 yr of burning resulted in a 55% increase in medusahead at the coolest winter site in Modoc County. In the second season after the final burn, medusahead cover remained low in burned plots at Fresno and Yolo counties (1 and 12% of cover in unburned controls, respectively), but at the Siskiyou site medusahead recovered to 45% relative to untreated controls. The success of prescribed burning was correlated with biomass of annual grasses, excluding medusahead, preceding a burn treatment. It is hypothesized that greater production of combustible forage resulted in increased fire intensity and greater seed mortality in exposed inflorescences. These results demonstrate that burning can be an effective control strategy for medusahead in low elevation, warm-winter areas characterized by high annual grass biomass production, but may not be successful in semiarid cool winter areas.