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In this study, we compared duration of untreated illness (DUI) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder (PD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients and investigated its correlates, both within specific diagnoses and across the whole sample.
Eighty-eight patients (33 OCD, 24 SAD, and 31 PD) had their diagnosis confirmed by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, were assessed for treatment-seeking variables, and were evaluated with instruments aimed at quantifying transdiagnostic features (i.e., the Cause subscale of the Illness Perception Questionnaire–Mental Health and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index–Revised) and severity of illness (i.e., Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, and the Social Phobia Inventory).
The only differences between groups with short (<2 years) versus long (>2 years) DUI were greater fear of public display of anxiety in the first group and greater social avoidance in the second group. The DUI was significantly different between groups that sought treatment after the onset of illness, with OCD patients having longer DUI than PD patients and shorter DUI than SAD patients. Further, DUI correlated negatively with the perception of OCD being caused by stress and positively with severity of panic-related disability in SAD patients, but not in PD or OCD patients.
There was substantial delay in treatment seeking among the anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder patients, particularly those with OCD or SAD. Perception of stress as a cause of OCD prompted treatment seeking, while severity of panic symptoms delayed treatment seeking.
Over the last decade, the quantity of scientific results brought by the observations of very faint objects has been quite spectacular. In particular, they concern the photometry of faint galaxies up to B = 27 (Tyson 1988) or K = 22 (Cowie et al. 1994). The consequences of these observations are the detection of a large population of faint galaxies more numerous than any prediction given by standard galaxy evolution and probably a new vision of the distant universe. For faint object spectroscopy, the most recent surveys of field galaxies reach a magnitude range of 23–24 (Colless et al. 1990, 1993, Lilly and Cowie 1993, Tresse et al. 1993) with a reasonable S/N ratio that allows a redshift measurement from absorption-line identification. But in this magnitude range, the sky background flux is dominant with respect to the source, being at least 10 times brighter.
We investigate the outer halo globular cluster population of NGC 1399. This study uses wide-field imaging of this cluster system, which covers the largest area studied with CCD photometry until now. The cluster system of NGC 1399 is found to extend further than 100 kpc from the galaxy. A population of metal-rich, as well as metal-poor clusters has been identified at these large radii. At radii smaller than 55 kpc the specific frequency of the red cluster system remains constant, while that of the blue clusters increases proportional to r0.8±0.2. For larger radii, the uncertainty of the galaxy light profile does not permit any reliable statement.
We performed spectroscopy of globular clusters associated with NGC 1399 and measured radial velocities of about 450 clusters, the largest sample ever obtained for dynamical studies. In this progress report, we present the sample and the first preliminary results. Red and blue clusters have slightly different velocity dispersions in accordance with their different density profiles in the case of a spherical and isotropic model. We then measure a constant circular velocity of 422 ± 20 km/s, which agrees well with that of the inner luminous component.
Systematic review and analysis of definitions of translational research.
Materials and methods
The final corpus was comprised of 33 papers, each read by at least 2 reviewers. Definitions were mapped to a common set of research processes for presentation and analysis. Influence of papers and definitions was further evaluated using citation analysis and agglomerative clustering.
All definitions were mapped to common research processes, revealing most common labels for each process. Agglomerative clustering revealed 3 broad families of definitions. Citation analysis showed that the originating paper of each family has been cited ~10 times more than any other member.
Although there is little agreement between definitions, we were able to identify an emerging consensus 5-phase (T0–T4) definition for translational research. T1 involves processes that bring ideas from basic research through early testing in humans. T2 involves the establishment of effectiveness in humans and clinical guidelines. T3 primarily focuses on implementation and dissemination research while T4 focuses on outcomes and effectiveness in populations. T0 involves research such as genome-wide association studies which wrap back around to basic research.
We used systematic review and analysis to identify emerging consensus between definitions of translational research phases.
In the north-western Himalaya, the distribution of modem glaciers and snowlines in the Ladakh and Zanskar Ranges adjacent to the Indus River valley suggests comparable climatic conditions prevail in the two ranges. Similarly, the positions of terminal moraines and reconstructed equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) indicate equivalent magnitudes of Neoglacial and Late Glacial advances in both ranges. However, the terminal positions and reconstructed ELAs from the late Pleistocene maximum advances are at least 400 m lower in the Ladakh Range than in the nearby Zanskar Range. These differences do not appear to reflect either climatic or tectonic controls. Rather, they are caused by an unusual bedrock configuration in the Zanskar Range, where vertical strata of indurated sandstones and conglomerates, and narrow steep-walled canyons cut through them, created a bulwark that effectively precluded significant down-valley advance. Without recognition of this physical impedance to glacial advance, uncritical reconstructions would greatly overestimate the altitude of the ELA in the Zanskar Range.
The technology leading to very large aperture telescopes and their optics has progressed well in the period since 1984 and plans for many new large aperture telescopes have been made. Focal plane instrumentation continues to become more sophisticated or more efficient: multi-object capabilities, automatic instrument control and operation, and increasing use of CCDs are examples of areas to which this applies. The proportion of time devoted to observations using two-dimensional photoelectronic detectors has grown substantially at many observatories, particularly with telescopes of moderate aperture; and the use of high quantum efficiency array detectors is now being extended into the infrared spectral region. Important advances have also been made in instrumentation and techniques for ground-based high angular resolution interferometry.
In this poster paper we shortly present recent developpment and preliminary results obtained with the focal reducer of the Canada French Hawai 3.6 meter telescope with new trends for deep imagery and multiaperture spectroscopy.
A new computer code, Analysis of RadionuclidESource-Term with Chemical Transport (AREST-CT), is described in this paper. The code is being designed to support performance assessment analyses of engineered systems for subsurface isolation of hazardous and radioactive wastes. Radionuclide releases from an engineered system are modeled by solving governing equations describing conservation of water mass, air mass, thermal energy, and chemical species mass. As such, the AREST-CT code will be capable of simulating radionuclide release and transport in a non-isothermal, unsaturated-saturated setting. Constituitive equations are implemented that describe corrosion of iron-based container materials, glass, and spent fuel waste forms. The governing equations are solved in a two-dimensional domain using an integrated finite-volume method. A third-order total variation diminishing (TVD) numerical scheme is evaluated to minimize numerical oscillations and dissipation of steep concentration gradients in advection-dominated transport problems.
This paper reports on the LP-MOCVD growth optimisation of GaAlN/GaN heterostructures grown on Silicon Carbide substrates for HEMT applications, and on the first device performances obtained with these structures. The critical impact of some growth parameters on the physical properties of the GaAlN/GaN epilayers has been identified and studied using High Resolution X-Ray diffraction (HR-XRD), AFM, C-V and sonogauge measurements. The SiC substrate surface preparation (both ex-situ and in-situ) and the nucleation layer growth conditions (growth temperature, thickness, composition and strain) have been found to be key steps of the GaAlN/GaN/SiC growth process. SiC substrates from different suppliers have been evaluated and their influence on the physical properties of the GaAlN/GaN HEMT structures investigated. Static characteristics of the devices such as maximum drain current Idss or pinch-off voltage have been correlated with the nucleation layer composition of the HEMT structure and the defect density of the SiC substrate. First devices measured at 10 GHz using a load pull system exhibited CW output power in excess of 2.8 W/mm for a gate length of 0.5 μm. Under static measurements, we found an Idss around 1 A/mm and a pinch-off voltage of –5 V.
The status of kinematic observations in Local Group dwarf spheroidal
galaxies (dSphs) is reviewed. Various approaches to the dynamical
modelling of these data are discussed and some general features of
dSph dark matter haloes based on simple mass models are presented.
We investigate the well-known correlations between the dynamical mass-to-light ratio M/L and other global observables of elliptical (E) and lenticular (S0) galaxies. We construct two-integral Jeans and three-integral Schwarzschild dynamical models for a sample of 25 E/S0 galaxies with SAURON integral-field stellar kinematics to about one effective (half-light) radius Re. The comparison of the dynamical M/L with the (M/L)pop inferred from the analysis of the stellar population, indicates that dark matter in early-type galaxies contributes ~30% of the total mass inside one Re, in agreement with previous studies, with significant variations from galaxy to galaxy. Our results suggest a variation in M/L at constant (M/L)pop, which seems to be linked to the galaxy dynamics. We speculate that fast rotating galaxies have lower dark matter fractions than the slow rotating and generally more massive ones.
I review various ideas on MOND cosmology and structure
beginning with non-relativistic models in analogy with Newtonian cosmology.
I discuss relativistic MOND cosmology in the context of
Bekenstein's theory and propose an alternative biscalar effective theory
of MOND in which the acceleration parameter, a0 is identified
with the cosmic time derivative of a matter coupling scalar field
and cosmic CDM appears as scalar field oscillations of the
auxiliary “coupling strength” field.
We first review the nonrelativistic Lagrangian theory as a framework for the MOND equation. Obstructions to a relativistic version of it are discussed leading up to TeVeS, a relativistic tensor-vector-scalar field theory which displays both MOND and Newtonian limits. The whys for its particular structure are discussed and its achievements so far are summarized.
The kinematical properties of elliptical galaxies formed during the mergers
of equal mass, stars+gas+dark matter spiral galaxies are compared to the
observed low velocity
dispersions found for planetary nebulae on the outskirts of ellipticals,
which have been interpreted as pointing to a lack of dark matter in
(which poses a problem for the standard model of galaxy formation).
We find that the velocity dispersion profiles of the stars in the
match well the observed ones.
The low outer stellar velocity dispersions are mainly caused by the radial
orbits of the outermost stars, which, for a given binding energy must have
low angular momentum to reach their large radial distances, usually driven
out along tidal tails.
I briefly highlight the salient properties of modified-inertia
formulations of MOND, contrasting them with those of
modified-gravity formulations, which describe practically all
theories propounded to date. Future data (e.g. the establishment
of the Pioneer anomaly as a new physics phenomenon) may prefer one
of these broad classes of theories over the other. I also outline
some possible starting ideas for modified inertia.
Leading candidates for non-baryonic Dark Matter are
Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). The principles of WIMP direct
detection and different search stategies are introduced. A review of
experimental results is presented. The most promising projects for the future