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Obesity is a growing problem in India, the dietary determinants of which have been studied using an ‘individual food/nutrient’ approach. Examining dietary patterns may provide more coherent findings, but few studies in developing countries have adopted this approach. The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns in an Indian population and assess their relationship with anthropometric risk factors.
FFQ data from the cross-sectional sib-pair Indian Migration Study (IMS; n 7067) were used to identify dietary patterns using principal component analysis. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to examine associations with obesity and central obesity.
The IMS was conducted at four factory locations across India: Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bangalore.
The participants were rural-to-urban migrant and urban non-migrant factory workers, their rural and urban resident siblings, and their co-resident spouses.
Three dietary patterns were identified: ‘cereals–savoury foods’ (cooked grains, rice/rice-based dishes, snacks, condiments, soups, nuts), ‘fruit–veg–sweets–snacks’ (Western cereals, vegetables, fruit, fruit juices, cooked milk products, snacks, sugars, sweets) and ‘animal-food’ (red meat, poultry, fish/seafood, eggs). In adjusted analysis, positive graded associations were found between the ‘animal-food’ pattern and both anthropometric risk factors. Moderate intake of the ‘cereals–savoury foods’ pattern was associated with reduced odds of obesity and central obesity.
Distinct dietary patterns were identified in a large Indian sample, which were different from those identified in previous literature. A clear ‘plant food-based/animal food-based pattern’ dichotomy emerged, with the latter being associated with higher odds of anthropometric risk factors. Longitudinal studies are needed to further clarify this relationship in India.
India is experiencing increased consumption of sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks, consumption that may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. The aim of the study was to determine the availability, price and quantity sold of ‘Pepsi’ and ‘Coca Cola’ in their ‘regular’ and ‘diet’ forms in Delhi and London.
A questionnaire about the availability, price and quantity sold per day of both regular and diet Pepsi and Coca Cola was devised and piloted. Using this, a survey of food and drink outlets within a 100 m radius of randomly selected Metro stations was conducted in both cities.
Store vendors, owners and staff of food and drink outlets.
Delhi, India; London, United Kingdom.
In Delhi, of the outlets stocking regular Pepsi and Coca Cola, only 34 % sold diet versions and these were more readily available in the most affluent areas than in the poorest areas (34 % v. 6 %, Z = 3·67, P < 0·001). This social patterning was not observed in London. Little price differential between regular and diet versions of Pepsi and Coca Cola was observed in Delhi; however, profit margins were better for regular, relative to diet, Coca Cola. Sales of regular products were significantly greater than those of diet products (P < 0·002).
Low availability of diet versions of Pepsi and Coca Cola in less affluent areas of Delhi is likely to exacerbate the obesity and diabetes trends. Price differentials to promote diet versions and other healthier or traditional low-energy drinks may be beneficial.
To study the impact of migration on food consumption among Indian factory workers and their siblings and spouses.
A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess diet using an interviewer-administered semi-quantitative FFQ from which intake of 184 commonly consumed food items was obtained.
Participants recruited from factory sites in Bangalore, Lucknow, Nagpur and Hyderabad.
The sample comprised 7049 participants (41·6 % female), and included urban, migrant and rural groups.
Thirteen food items were eaten by the greatest proportion of individuals on a daily basis. These were all indigenous foods. The proportion of people consuming tandoori roti, dal with vegetables, potato and ghee on a daily basis was highest in the urban sample, intermediate in the migrant group and lowest in the rural group (P ≤ 0·01). The proportion of individuals consuming Western food on a weekly basis followed a similar trend.
The diet of this sample is predominantly indigenous in nature, irrespective of migration status, with the prevalence of daily Western food consumption being minimal.
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