This study describes phenotypic and genotypic variations in the planktonic copepod, Centropages typicus (Copepoda: Calanoida) that indicate differentiation between geographical samples. We found consistent differences in the morphology of the chela of the sexually modified fifth pereiopod (P5) of male C. typicus between samples from the Mediterranean, western North Atlantic and eastern North Atlantic. A 560 base pairs (bp) region of the C. typicus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and a 462 bp fragment of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) tandem array were analysed to determine whether these morphological variations reflect population genetic differentiation. Mitochondrial haplotype diversity was found to be high with 100 unique COI haplotypes among 116 individuals. Analysis of mtCOI variation suggested differentiation between the Mediterranean and Atlantic populations but no separation was detected within the Atlantic. Intragenomic variation in the ITS array suggested genetic differentiation between samples from the western North Atlantic and those from the eastern North Atlantic and Mediterranean. Breeding experiments would be required to elucidate the extent of genetic isolation between C. typicus from the different population centres.