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We have developed a selective-area-growth (SAG) method of self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) using a metal-mask (MM) combined with molecular beam epitaxy for realizing photonic crystal (PC) based ultra-small and ultra-fast all-optical devices (PC-SMZ and PC-FF). Successful SAG of QDs was confirmed by atomic-force-microscopy observations and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. High density and high uniformity comparable to those of conventional QDs grown without the MM were achieved; the QD density was 4 × 1010cm-2 and a linewidth of the PL peak was around 30meV at room temperature. In addition, insertion of a strain-reducing layer on the grown QD was effective for varying the PL peak wavelength of the QD from 1240nm to 1320nm without any extra optical degradation. The MM method reported here is promising for achieving the all optical devices, PC-SMZ and PC-FF, which require SAG of QDs and a QD ensemble with a different absorption-peak wavelength in a different area.
A new model for Staebler-Wronski effects is proposed. Defect pairs of (D°:D+) or (D°:D°) as a precursor of neutral dangling bonds are produced by electron-phonon interactions. Most of the defect-pairs immediately rebond after creation, but some of them separate resulting in wandering dangling bonds. The separation and the wandering take place through bond-switching. When wandering dangling bonds collide, most of them make covalent bonds via defect-pairs. The rate equations based on these processes are given and annealing effects on photo-generated dangling bonds are studied.
Effects of rapid thermal processing (RTP) on SiO2/GaAs interfaces have been studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, capacitance-voltage measurements and deep-level transient spectroscopy. SiO2 films of 50, 200 and 1250 nim thickness have been deposited on GaAs. RTP has been performed at 760 and 910°C for 9 s. The rapid diffusion of Ga through the SiO2 film occurs, and the As loss and the formation of the As layer near the interface are observed. The decrease of the carrier concentration occurs in all RTP samples. Five electron traps EAI (Ec – 0.27 eV), EA2 (Ec – 0.32 eV), EA3 (Ec – 0.47 eV), EA4 (Ec – 0.58 eV) and EL2 (Ec – 0.78 eV) are produced by RTP. It is considered that the production of the trap EL2 is closely related to the Ga outdiffusion into the SiO2 film and the As indiffusion from the pile-up of elemental As near the interface. Effects of SiO2 film thickness on RTP-SiO2/GaAs are also reported.
Effects of rapid thermal processing (RTP) on SiO2/GaAs interfaces have been investigated with Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. SiO2 films of 100, 175, 200 and 1250 nm thickness have been deposited on liquid encapsulated Czochralski-grown (100) n-type GaAs wafers by the RF sputtering method. RTP has been performed at 800°C for 6 s. For comparison, conventional furnace processing (CFP) has also been performed at 800°C for 20 min for 200-nm-thick SiO2/GaAs. The Ga is observed on the outer SiO2 surface for RTP samples as well as CFP samples. This indicates that the outdiffusion of Ga occurs after only 6 s at 800°C even through 1250-nm-thick SiO2 films. The depth profile of Ga reveals the pile-up of Ga on the outer SiO2 surface for both RTP and CFP samples. The amount of Ga on the outer surface gradually increases in the thickness range 1250 to 175 nm. The As is also observed on the outer surface. The amount of Ga and As on the outer surface rapidly increases at 100 nm thickness. Electron traps in RTP samples have been studied with deep-level transient spectroscopy. Different electron traps are produced in GaAs by RTP between 100-nm- and 200-nm-thick SiO2/GaAs. It is thought that the production of different traps by RTP is related to the amount of Ga and As loss through SiO2 films from GaAs.
Rapid thermal processing (RTP) using halogen lamps for a Si-doped molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) n-GaAs layers was investigated by deep level transient spectroscopy. RTP was performed at 700°C, 800°C and 900°C for 6 s. Two electron traps NI ( Ec-0.5-0.7eV) and EL2 (Ec - 0.82 eV) are produced by RTP at 800 and 900°C.The peculiar spatial variations of the Nl and EL2 concentration across the MBE GaAs films are observed. The larger concentrations of the trap N1 and EL2 are observed near the edge of the samples, and the minima of N1 and EL2 concentration lie between the center and the edge of the sample. It seems that these spatial variations of N1 and EL2 concentration are consistent with that of the thermal stress induced by RTP. Furthermore, the EL2 concentration near the edge of the sample is suppressed by the contact with the GaAs pieces on the edge around the sample during RTP.
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