To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Clinical case studies are fundamental in cementing theoretical training, especially for neurological disorders where diagnosis can be difficult. This book describes a variety of clinical scenarios associated with either the misdiagnosis or incorrect management of cognitive and behavioral neurological syndromes, identifying common pitfalls, which are discussed in detail. Each case emphasizes the importance of information derived from the patient's history and physical examination in forming a correct diagnosis. Focusing on disorders and presentations that are a frequent source of confusion, key diagnostic principles are illustrated clearly. Questions to the reader move the narrative along logically, whilst highlighting specific aspects of clinical presentation that lead to the correct diagnosis. Videos of patients connect readers to the cases and demonstrate how to avoid diagnostic pitfalls. An online version of the book can be accessed on Cambridge Core, via the code printed on the inside of the cover.
Arbitration enjoys a long tradition in Spain.2 It has been consistently recognized by and promoted throughout historical laws3 as an alternative method for dispute resolution. The recognition of arbitration in legal texts can be traced to Spanish medieval law.4Breviario de Alarico, or Lex Romana Visigothorum,5 promulgated on February 2, 506, and Liber Iudiciorum,6 among others, acknowledged that the value of arbitration was definitively enshrined in the fundamental Siete Partidas.7 Since then, a series of famous arbitral awards – Compromiso de Caspe 1321 and 1363 (the Covenant of Caspe), Sentencia Arbitral de Guadalupe 1486 (the Arbitral Award of Guadalupe) – and regal laws in Castile fostered the institution by ordering the enforcement of commitments agreed by the parties (Ordenanza de Madrid of 1502). These legal and arbitral decisions paved the way to the incorporation of the institution of arbitration into the Novísima Recopilación (1804).8 The resort to arbitration for solving disputes among merchants and guilds, as a response to their aversion to ordinary courts, gave a lot of impetus to arbitration during that period.
Consider a three-dimensional partially hyperbolic diffeomorphism. It is proved that under some rigid hypothesis on the tangent bundle dynamics, the map is (modulo finite covers and iterates) an Anosov diffeomorphism, a (generalized) skew-product or the time-one map of an Anosov flow, thus recovering a well-known classification conjecture of the second author to this restricted setting.
This chapter provides an outlook of the issues, born out of the material presented in the book, that will likely be at the center of future developments of the field. They are organized following the scheme set by the preceding chapters.
This chapter illustrates the implications of river network structure for the spread of waterborne diseases. Human mobility is also added as a driver and a network of interaction. The water-related (WR) diseases considered are epidemic cholera, endemic schistosomiasis, and proliferative kidney disease in fish. After reviewing the basic (space-implicit) epidemiological models for micro- and micro-parasites, general space-explicit models for both kinds of parasites are studied. Both the hydrologic and the human mobility network are included, and the general conditions for disease establishment are derived, including also the case of seasonal forcings. Conditions for transient (though possibly large) epidemics are also found. The microparasitic model is applied to several cholera epidemics, including the one that has been devastating Haiti. Spatially explicit macroparasitic models of schistosomiasis are then analyzed and applied to the cases of Senegal and Burkina Faso. Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) in salmonid fish, a pathology linked to global warming, is modeled. The space-explicit approach is used for the study of PKD spread in the basin of the river Wigger (Switzerland).
Three separate appendices, rather technical, compose this chapter. The first deals with the stability of dynamical systems and bifurcation analysis, the second with a background and rationale for optimal channel networks. The third deals with computational tools: Matlab code is explained and run, and results are highlighted. The source codes may be downloaded at www.epfl.ch/labs/echo/.
The chapter explores the problem of species spread in river systems. It introduces the basic quantitative tools for dealing with the topic: first advection-diffusion-reaction traditional equations, then more modern approaches via interacting particle systems and reaction random walks on graphs. The Mississippi-Missouri river system is once again taken as the epitomizing river network: the dramatic invasion of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), seeded by the accidental discharge of ballast water from European cargo ships in the Great Lakes region, is studied via a multilayer network model, including not only hydrology but also the displacement due to anthropic activity. Advanced laboratory experiments are then described and modeled in which the response of the alga Euglena gracilis when exposed to controlled light fields is analyzed. This allows insight into the problem of how spatial resource availability shapes the invasion patterns of riverine populations. Finally, a thorough analysis of mixing and dispersion in river systems is the basic tool to tackle a problem of enormous interest, namely, estimating species distribution and abundance using environmental DNA.
One of the great challenges in the use of nanomaterials is their production at low costs and high yields. In this work aluminum nanoparticles, from aluminum powder, were produced by wet mechanical milling through a combination of different attrition milling conditions such as ball-powder ratio (BPR) and the amount of solvent used. It was observed that at 600 rpm with a BPR of 500/30 g for 12 h, it was possible to produce nanoparticles with a size close to 20 nm, while at 750 rpm with a BPR of 380/12.6 g for 12 h, nanoparticles of approximately 10 nm were obtained. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the milling product is an agglomeration of nanoparticles with different sizes. These results show the feasibility of obtaining aluminum nanoparticles by mechanical milling using only ethanol as solvent, avoiding hazardous by-products obtained from chemical routes, and the use of complicated methods such as laser ablation and arc discharge.
The introductory chapter outlines the leit-motiv of the book – dendritic substrates for ecological interactions, chief and foremost river networks in our case, bear important consequences for a number of processes, from patterns of biodiversity to controls of spreading of waterborne disease. In this chapter we discuss important methodological aspects of spatially explicit ecology that are used throughout the book.
The information displayed on the packages of feeding bottles and teats commercialized in Montevideo (Uruguay) was analyzed using content analysis with the goal of identifying key marketing practices that may discourage breastfeeding.
The study was conducted as part of the periodic assessment performed by the Uruguayan government to monitor the marketing of breast-milk substitutes. All the feeding bottles and teats sold in 44 retail outlets selling breast-milk substitutes were purchased. The information available on the packages was analyzed using content analysis and descriptive statistics.
A total of 197 feeding bottles and 71 teats were found. The majority of the packages included information to enable caregivers to adequately use the products, including recommended age, instructions on how to use the products and instructions on the use of hygienic practices. However, the packages frequently included information that implied that bottle-feeding was equivalent to breastfeeding, particularly from a physiological perspective, or that idealized product use. Idealizations included ability to reduce colic, improvements in the feeding experience and improvements in children’s health, wellbeing and development. Statements on the superiority of breastfeeding were infrequent.
Results from the present work showed the high prevalence of marketing practices on the packages of feeding bottles and teats that may discourage breastfeeding. Stricter and more detailed regulations seem necessary to enable caregivers to make informed feeding decisions for infants.
The chapter is not a complete review of the subject but rather contains a specific choice of topics relevant to the general concepts of biodiversity in river networks. It first explores the fish diversity of the Mississippi-Missouri river system via a hierarchical metacommunity model that includes river hydrology and habitat suitability. Illustrated is the role of the frequency distribution of shear stresses in determining the spatially explicit probability distribution functions of benthic invertebrate habitat suitability. The viewpoint is then broadened by addressing general metapopulation persistence in river networks; this is achieved by analyzing stage-structured populations that exploit different dispersal pathways, both alongstream and overland. Examples are given with reference to amphibians. Gradients of biodiversity in fluvial landscapes, as determined by changes in elevation, is the next topic. The characteristic features of hump-shaped patterns of species richness along elevational gradients are derived, using both idealized (but realistic) fluvial landscapes and real landscapes of the Swiss Alps. The approach allows also the outline of possible consequences of climate change.