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This new edition of a foundational text presents a contemporary review of cladistics, as applied to biological classification. It provides a comprehensive account of the past 50 years of discussion on the relationship between classification, phylogeny and evolution. It covers cladistics in the era of molecular data, detailing new advances and ideas that have emerged over the last 25 years. Written in an accessible style by internationally renowned authors in the field, readers are straightforwardly guided through fundamental principles and terminology. Simple worked examples and easy-to-understand diagrams also help readers navigate complex problems that have perplexed scientists for centuries. This practical guide is an essential addition for advanced undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in taxonomy, systematics, comparative biology, evolutionary biology and molecular biology.
Newton's Principia is perhaps the second most famous work of mathematics, after Euclid's Elements. Originally published in 1687, it gave the first systematic account of the fundamental concepts of dynamics, as well as three beautiful derivations of Newton's law of gravitation from Kepler's laws of planetary motion. As a book of great insight and ingenuity, it has raised our understanding of the power of mathematics more than any other work. This heavily annotated translation of the third and final edition (1726) of the Principia will enable any reader with a good understanding of elementary mathematics to easily grasp the meaning of the text, either from the translation itself or from the notes, and to appreciate some of its significance. All forward references are given to illuminate the structure and unity of the whole, and to clarify the parts. The mathematical prerequisites for understanding Newton's arguments are given in a brief appendix.
For the last twenty years, The Destruction of the Bison has been an essential work in environmental history. Andrew C. Isenberg offers a concise analysis of the near-extinction of the North American bison population from an estimated 30 million in 1800 to fewer than 1000 a century later. His wide-ranging, interdisciplinary study carefully considers the multiple causes, cultural and ecological, of the destruction of the species. The twentieth-anniversary edition includes a new foreword connecting this seminal work to developments in the field – notably new perspectives in Native American history and the rise of transnational history – and placing the story of the bison in global context. A new afterword extends the study to the twenty-first century, underlining the continued importance of this ground-breaking text for current, and future, students and scholars.
This accessible text covers key results in functional analysis that are essential for further study in the calculus of variations, analysis, dynamical systems, and the theory of partial differential equations. The treatment of Hilbert spaces covers the topics required to prove the Hilbert–Schmidt theorem, including orthonormal bases, the Riesz representation theorem, and the basics of spectral theory. The material on Banach spaces and their duals includes the Hahn–Banach theorem, the Krein–Milman theorem, and results based on the Baire category theorem, before culminating in a proof of sequential weak compactness in reflexive spaces. Arguments are presented in detail, and more than 200 fully-worked exercises are included to provide practice applying techniques and ideas beyond the major theorems. Familiarity with the basic theory of vector spaces and point-set topology is assumed, but knowledge of measure theory is not required, making this book ideal for upper undergraduate-level and beginning graduate-level courses.
Learn about the state-of-the-art at the interface between information theory and data science with this first unified treatment of the subject. Written by leading experts in a clear, tutorial style, and using consistent notation and definitions throughout, it shows how information-theoretic methods are being used in data acquisition, data representation, data analysis, and statistics and machine learning. Coverage is broad, with chapters on signal acquisition, data compression, compressive sensing, data communication, representation learning, emerging topics in statistics, and much more. Each chapter includes a topic overview, definition of the key problems, emerging and open problems, and an extensive reference list, allowing readers to develop in-depth knowledge and understanding. Providing a thorough survey of the current research area and cutting-edge trends, this is essential reading for graduate students and researchers working in information theory, signal processing, machine learning, and statistics.
This book integrates philosophy of science, data acquisition methods, and statistical modeling techniques to present readers with a forward-thinking perspective on clinical science. It reviews modern research practices in clinical psychology that support the goals of psychological science, study designs that promote good research, and quantitative methods that can test specific scientific questions. It covers new themes in research including intensive longitudinal designs, neurobiology, developmental psychopathology, and advanced computational methods such as machine learning. Core chapters examine significant statistical topics, for example missing data, causality, meta-analysis, latent variable analysis, and dyadic data analysis. A balanced overview of observational and experimental designs is also supplied, including preclinical research and intervention science. This is a foundational resource that supports the methodological training of the current and future generations of clinical psychological scientists.
How are intelligence and creativity related? Given the dynamic and complex nature of both constructs, this question is a nuanced one. This chapter first discusses how creativity is represented in intelligence theories (such as Guilford’s Structure of Intellect, CHC, and successful intelligence, and how intelligence is represented in creativity theories (such as systems and componential theories, domain-based theories, and cognitive theories). Next, empirical studies are reviewed. The threshold theory, which proposes that intelligence and creativity are related but only up to about an IQ of 120, has received mixed support. More recent studies using sophisticated statistical analyses have found more evidence. A reliance on measures of divergent thinking and g as the sole tests of creativity and intelligence may also limit much existing research.
It is a widely held view that “nobody knows you better than yourself.” However, the low validity of self-estimates of intelligence and other abilities indicated by a considerable body of research does not support this notion. Individuals overestimate themselves and do so particularly for domains in which they perform poorly (the so-called Dunning-Kruger effect). Interestingly, intelligence estimates given by others are equally accurate or sometimes even more accurate than self-estimates. This chapter provides an overview of research on self- and other-estimates of intelligence and potential moderators of their accuracy. It also aims to bring the research lines on self- and other-estimates of intelligence together within the framework of the self-other knowledge asymmetry (SOKA) model proposed by Simine Vazire. The ability to predict for which intelligence subfactors one of the two perspectives might provide more accurate estimates has implications for both research and practical fields like vocational counseling.
This chapter focuses on the archival documents relevant to a study of McCarthy’s works completed in the 1970s: the novels Child of God and Suttree, and the teleplay The Gardener’s Son. It surveys the collections of correspondence available for these years, but concentrates primarily on McCarthy’s typescripts, identifying the relationships among the key drafts and highlighting some of the insights to be gained from the archives about the genesis, composition, revisions, and editing of these works. It shows how Child of God took its genesis from the second draft stage of Outer Dark when McCarthy repurposed material from one book for the other. For The Gardener’s Son, it surveys the documents available in the papers of McCarthy, film director Richard Pearce, and the Ecco Press Records, and outlines the changes which McCarthy made in the teleplay between its second draft and the shooting script. The Suttree section concentrates on material deleted from the novel before publication, either on McCarthy’s initiative or in response to his editor’s plea for compression. It argues that the deleted scenes saved by McCarthy in a separate folder focus primarily on the transformation of oral to literary narratives and emphasize Suttree as a writer in the making.
This chapter surveys currently available archives of drafts and correspondence relevant to a study of the works McCarthy wrote wholly or in part during his Tennessee years. It suggests broad guidelines for doing archival research on McCarthy before focusing on his first two novels, The Orchard Keeper and Outer Dark, for which the most important archives are McCarthy’s papers and those of Random House editor Albert Erskine. For this period we currently have few letters with correspondents other than McCarthy’s editors; but the archives provide a rich introduction to his working practices. They offer important glimpses of McCarthy’s early sense of confidence about his writing, his aesthetic aims and principles, and his developing relationship with Erskine, who edited his novels for twenty years. The chapter describes the relationships among the key drafts and highlights some of the insights to be gained from the archives about the genesis, composition, revisions, and editing of these works. McCarthy’s revisions of The Orchard Keeper, first for Lawrence Bensky and then for Erskine, are especially revealing of his approach to revising for another reader. The first and early drafts of Outer Dark provide rare insights into McCarthy’s compositional strategies and practices.
The common femoral artery is a continuation of the external iliac artery and is approximately 4 cm long. It begins directly behind the inguinal ligament, midway between the anterior superior iliac spine and the symphysis pubis.
The profunda femoris artery arises from the lateral aspect of the common femoral artery, towards the femur, approximately 3–4 cm below the inguinal ligament. The common femoral artery continues obliquely down the anteromedial aspect of the thigh as the superficial femoral artery.
The superficial femoral artery exits the femoral triangle to enter the subsartorial canal and ends by passing through an opening in the adductor magnus to become the popliteal artery.
In the upper third of the thigh, the femoral vessels are contained within the femoral triangle (Scarpa’s triangle).
The femoral triangle is formed laterally by the medial border of the sartorius muscle, medially by the adductor longus, and superiorly by the inguinal ligament.
In the femoral triangle, the femoral vein lies medial to the femoral artery. The greater saphenous vein drains into the femoral vein about 3–4 cm below the inguinal ligament; further distally, the femoral vein lies posterior to the artery and maintains this relationship in the popliteal fossa. The femoral nerve and its branches are found lateral to the common femoral artery.
In the middle third of the thigh, the femoral artery lies within the adductor canal (Hunter’s canal), an aponeurotic tunnel in the middle third of the thigh that extends from the apex of the femoral triangle to the opening in the adductor magnus.
The adductor canal is bounded by the sartorius muscle anteriorly, the vastus medialis laterally, and the adductor longus and magnus posteromedially. A fascial plane between the vastus medialis and adductor longus and magnus covers the canal.
The canal contains the femoral artery and vein, the saphenous nerve which crosses from lateral to medial, and branches of the femoral nerve.
The femoral vein courses from a medial position in the groin to a posterior and then lateral position with respect to the artery as it moves distally towards the knee.
The greater saphenous vein courses medially to lie on the anterior surface of the thigh, before entering the fascia lata and joining the common femoral vein at the sapheno-femoral junction near the femoral triangle.
The right common carotid artery originates from the innominate (brachiocephalic) artery. The external landmark is the right sternoclavicular joint. The left common carotid artery originates directly from the aortic arch in the superior mediastinum.
The carotid sheath contains the common and internal carotid arteries, the internal jugular vein, and the vagus nerve. The internal jugular vein lies lateral and superficial to the common carotid artery and vagus nerve. The vagus nerve lies posteriorly, between the artery and the vein. On occasion the vagus nerve may be located anterior to the vessels.
The carotid sheath and its contents are covered superficially by the platysma, anterior margin of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, and the omohyoid muscle. Deep to the vessels are the longus colli and longus capitis muscles. Medial to the carotid sheath is the esophagus and trachea.
At the level of the superior border of the thyroid cartilage, the common carotid artery bifurcates into the internal and external carotid arteries.
The facial vein crosses the carotid sheath superficially to enter the internal jugular vein at the level of the carotid bifurcation.
The external carotid artery lies medial to the internal carotid artery for the majority of their course. The first branch of the external carotid artery is the superior thyroid artery located near the carotid bifurcation.
The internal carotid artery does not have any extracranial branches.
At the level of the angle of the mandible, the internal and external carotid arteries are crossed superficially by the hypoglossal nerve (Cranial Nerve XII) and the posterior belly of the digastric muscle. The glossopharyngeal nerve (Cranial Nerve IX) passes in front of the internal carotid artery, above the hypoglossal nerve.
The external carotid arteries terminate in the parotid gland, where they divide into the superficial temporal and maxillary arteries.
At the level of the skull base, the internal carotid arteries cross deep and medial to the external carotid arteries to enter the carotid canal behind the styloid process.
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) can be defined as the failure of the fetus to meet its genetically predetermined growth potential  and is associated with significant fetal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. In addition, there is evidence to suggest a longer-term impact of FGR on childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes  and cardiovascular and metabolic diseases that manifest in adulthood . However, predicting FGR is not straightforward and methods for screening and diagnosis are imprecise. In the UK and USA, ultrasound scans in the second half of pregnancy are not performed routinely but targeted at women considered to be at risk for FGR, where high risk is identified by maternal characteristics (including anthropometry and pre-existing disease), the development of complications, or clinical suspicion based on being ‘small for dates’ on physical examination. For practical purposes, FGR may be suspected if biometric measurements are below a given threshold of the distribution in the population, typically <10th, 5th or 3rd centile for gestational age, or if there is a reduction in growth velocity (‘crossing centiles’) from previous scans . The difficulty with using biometry alone is that it does not differentiate between the growth-restricted fetus affected by placental insufficiency, and the healthy, constitutionally small fetus. Therefore, additional measures may be employed to diagnose placental dysfunction, such as Doppler studies of the fetal and uteroplacental circulation, and analysis of maternal serum biomarkers. At present, the only treatment available for FGR is to expedite delivery, but at preterm gestations this can also can cause harm. However, new genomics-based research could help us better understand the etiology of growth restriction and identify more accurate diagnostic biomarkers or potential therapeutic targets. This chapter will focus on current practice in screening for and intervention in FGR and will also consider new developments and the future of the field.
The pancreas lies transversely in the retroperitoneum, at the L1–L2 vertebral level, between the duodenum and the hilum of the spleen.
The head of the pancreas lies over the inferior vena cava (IVC), right renal hilum, and the left renal vein at its junction with the IVC.
The uncinate process extends to the left and wraps from around the superior mesenteric vessels. It is in close proximity to the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery.
The neck of the pancreas lies over the superior mesenteric vessels and the proximal portal vein. The space between the neck and the superior mesenteric vessels is avascular and allows blunt dissection without bleeding. The area to either side of the midline is vascular and should be avoided.
The body of the pancreas lies over the suprarenal aorta and the left renal vessels. It is intimately related to the splenic artery and vein.
The major pancreatic duct (Wirsung) traverses the entire length of the pancreas and drains into the ampulla of Vater, approximately 8 cm below the pylorus. The lesser duct of Santorini branches off the superior aspect of the major duct, at the level of the neck of the pancreas, and drains separately into the duodenum, approximately 2–3 cm proximal to the ampulla of Vater.
The pancreas receives its blood supply from both the celiac artery and the superior mesenteric artery.
The head of the pancreas and the proximal part of the duodenum receive their blood supply from the anterior and posterior pancreaticoduodenal arcades. These arcades lie on the surface of the pancreas, close to the duodenal loop. Any attempts to separate the two organs results in ischemia of the duodenum.
The body and tail of the pancreas receive their blood supply mainly from the splenic artery. The splenic artery originates from the celiac artery and courses to the left along the superior border of the pancreas. It follows a tortuous route, with parts of it looping above and below the superior border of the pancreas. It gives numerous small and short branches to the body and tail of the pancreas.
The splenic vein courses from left to right, superiorly and posteriorly to the upper border of the pancreas, inferiorly to the splenic artery. It is not tortuous like the artery. It joins the superior mesenteric vein, at a right angle, behind the neck of the pancreas, to form the portal vein. The inferior mesenteric vein crosses behind the body of the pancreas and drains into the splenic vein.
The portal vein is formed by the junction of the superior mesenteric and splenic veins, in front of the inferior vena cava and behind the neck of the pancreas.
The common bile duct (CBD) courses posterior to the first part of the duodenum, in front of the portal vein, continues behind the head of the pancreas, often partially covered by pancreatic tissue, and drains into the ampulla of Vater, in the second part of the duodenum.
In a world of open markets and global trade, development thinking seeks stability and prosperity for the world's poor by expanding access to financial products. This book challenges the development sector's embrace of 'financial inclusion' by exploring the new risks and instabilities that accompany the pivot towards the global economy undermine the functioning of money itself. Cast against fundamental change in the monetary environment accompanying the globalisation of markets, it examines the rapid liberalisation of money and markets in Pakistan. It argues liberalisation has generated substantive problems not only for the central bank as guardian of national currency, but for ordinary households. By pinpointing how globalisation generates new risks for households in the everyday economy,it reveals jarring contradictions between free markets and financial inclusion whilst challenging money theory by positing substantive and empirically-grounded monetary contestation that demonstrates a burden of risk imposed on ordinary people, only exacerbated by financial inclusion.
The prenatal detection of structural cardiac malformations has greatly benefited from the advances in echo Doppler technology and the in-depth training of specialists in this area. This opens up new possibilities, now and in the future, for developing in utero therapies. It also allows a better knowledge of the underlying mechanisms and developmental timing that lead to structural congenital heart disease (CHD), based on a marked progress involving genetic and epigenetic causes. Gene mutations are discovered in the fetus and parents, and pathways can be unraveled using mouse transgene technology. Epigenetic causes are also receiving attention, but have thus far been underestimated as approximately 85% of CHD is determined to have a multifactorial background that combines a genetic susceptibility with epigenetic influences. Studies in animal models, including chicken, quail, zebrafish, and even more primitive Chordates, contribute relevant data. In essence, cardiac development shows basic similarities of the major processes involved between species. Therefore mechanisms unraveled in animal models can be reliably used in understanding normal human cardiac development and CHD .
In this book, Dennis C. Dickerson examines the long history of the African Methodist Episcopal Church and its intersection with major social movements over more than two centuries. Beginning as a religious movement in the late eighteenth century, the African Methodist Episcopal Church developed as a freedom advocate for blacks in the Atlantic World. Governance of a proud black ecclesia often clashed with its commitment to and resources for fighting slavery, segregation, and colonialism, thus limiting the full realization of the church's emancipationist ethos. Dickerson recounts how this black institution nonetheless weathered the inexorable demands produced by the Civil War, two world wars, the civil rights movement, African decolonization, and women's empowerment, resulting in its global prominence in the contemporary world. His book also integrates the history of African Methodism within the broader historical landscape of American and African-American history.
The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) is a 344-item self-administered questionnaire that assesses a variety of psychopathology and personality domains. The PAI consists of twenty-two non-overlapping scales, including four validity scales, eleven clinical scales, five treatment scales, and two interpersonal scales. Ten of the scales are further organized into subscales intended to assure breadth of coverage within diagnostic constructs. PAI scale and subscale raw scores are linearly transformed to T-scores (mean of 50, standard deviation of 10) to provide interpretation relative to a community standardization sample. Each item on the PAI is rated using a four-alternative scale, ranging from False, Not at all True (F), to Very True (VT). The PAI has practical applications across a variety of assessment specialties, including diagnostic decision-making, treatment planning, forensic evaluation, and personnel selection.
The advancement and spread of technology have improved options for clinical assessment. Specifically, ambulatory assessment (AA) methods have improved the ability to assess constructs with a particular focus on intra-individual and dynamic time processes, which are highly relevant to the assessment of mood and behavior. This chapter reviews current technologies, including applications of online platforms and devices, often utilized to collect data in an AA framework, and discusses their applications within research and clinical settings (e.g., assessment of mood instability). AA has a number of benefits, including limited or no reliance on retrospective recall as well as the ability to assess context and construct of interest in the “real world,” and allows for the ability to gather rich information regarding mood, behavior, and psychophysiology as part of the clinical assessment process. Much of the clinical application of AA is in the early stages. A number of important considerations and recommendations, including data security, accessibility, and future directions, are also reviewed within the context of AA methods.