Poultry manure and litter have the potential to be either land resources or pollutants of surface and ground water as well as giving rise to unpleasant odours. Provided proper attention is paid to nutrient management, they can be used as fertilisers, soil amendments and feed ingredients. Furthermore, the contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and other minerals in poultry manure and litter can be reduced by paying careful attention to diet composition – for example, by applying the concept of ideal protein, supplementation with synthetic amino acids, the addition of various types of enzymes including phytase, the lowering of the protein and phosphorus contents and the use of highly available sources of supplementary phosphorus and vitamin D. Good nutrient management also depends on obtaining representative samples of feed, manure, litter, water and soil from each handling system and having these analysed on a regular basis in a reliable laboratory. This not only ensures that proper quantities of nutrients are added to the native soil on which the crops that are ultimately to be used as feed sources are to be grown, but also means that lower amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and other elements are present in the feed. One outcome of the latter effect is that the poultry manure and litter excreted contains fewer potential pollutants and reduces the criticism levelled at the poultry industry that it runs roughshod over environmental concerns. It would be beneficial if all of these analytical procedures were handled in one laboratory specialising in animal agriculture with specialists advising farmers on how best to apply the analytical data.