Skip to main content Accessibility help

Manganese in poultry nutrition and its effect on performance and eggshell quality

  • O. OLGUN (a1)


Manganese (Mn) is an element required in nutrition, functioning largely in the enzyme systems involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. It plays an important role in growth, bone development, perosis prevention, optimal eggshell quality and performance maintenance of poultry. The current NRC (1994) guidelines recommend 20 and 60 mg/kg of Mn for laying hens and broilers, respectively. In practical poultry feeds, however, the dietary requirement of Mn is considered higher than these values. Traditionally, Mn is added to the diet in the sulphate form, which is typically used as the standard in nutritional studies. However, in recent times, other, more natural forms have been made available to the feed industry, e.g. organic chelates. From this current review of published data, it appears that inorganic Mn supplementation up to 200 mg/kg is ineffective on the performance of both laying hens and broilers but at lower levels it improves eggshell quality. The dietary Mn requirement of laying hens and broilers appears to be 90 mg/kg, and the availability of Mn-sulphate is higher than that of other inorganic Mn sources but lower than its organic sources. More studies should be undertaken to determine the optimum Mn requirement in its various forms for laying hens and broilers.


Corresponding author

Corresponding author:


Hide All
AO, T. and PIERCE, J. (2013) The replacement of inorganic mineral salts with mineral proteinates in poultry diets. World's Poultry Science Journal 69: 5-16.
BERTA, E., ANDRASOFSZKY, E., BERSENYI, A., GLAVITS, R., GASPARDY, A. and FEKETE, S.G. (2004) Effect of inorganic and organic manganese supplementation on the performance and tissue manganese content of broiler chicks. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 52: 199-209.
BLACK, J.R., AMMERMAN, C.B., HENRY, P.R. and MILES, R.D. (1984) Biological availability of manganese sources and effects of high dietary manganese on tissue mineral composition of broiler-type chicks. Poultry Science 63: 1999-2006.
BROOKS, M.A., GRIMES, J.L., LLOYD, K.E., VALDEZ, F. and SPEARS, J.W. (2012) Relative bioavailability in chicks of manganese from manganese propionate. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research 21: 126-130.
CAO, S.F. and CHEN, L.J. (1987) Effects of manganese of the concentrations of plasma, LH, estrogen and progesterone in white ear hens. Journal of Shanghai Agricultural College 5: 109-116.
COLLINS, N.E. and MORAN, E.T. (1999) Influence of supplemental manganese and zinc on live performance and carcass quality of broilers. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research 8: 222-227.
COX, A.C. and BALLOUN, S.L. (1968) Manganese supplementation for commercial egg production. Poultry Science 47: 1664 (Abstr).
FARIA, D.E.D., JUNQUEIRA, O.M., SAKOMURA, N.K. and SANTANA, A.E. (1999) Effect of different levels of manganese and phosphorus on the performance and eggshell quality of laying hens. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 28: 105-112.
FASSANI, E.J., BERTECHINI, A.G., OLIVEIRA, B.L.DE., GONCALVES, T.DE.M. and FIALHO, E.T. (2000) Manganese in nutrition of Leghorn hens in the second cycle of production. Ciencia e Agrotecnologia 24: 468-478.
FENG, J. and FENG, Z.G. (1998) Effect of Mn-deficiency on reproductive performance in egg-laying chickens. Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica 29: 499-505.
GHEISARI, A.A., SANEI, A., SAMIE, A., GHEISARI, M.M. and TOGHYANI, M. (2011a) Effect of diets supplemented with different levels of manganese, zinc, and copper from their organic or inorganic sources on egg production and quality characteristics in laying hens. Biological Trace Element Research 142: 557-571.
GHEISARI, A.A., RAHIMI-FATHKOOHI, A., TOGHYANI, M. and GHEISARI, M.M. (2011b) Influence of feeding diets supplemented with different levels and sources of zinc, copper and manganese on the mineral concentrations in tibia and performance of broiler chickens. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 6: 166-174.
GHOSH, A., MANDAL, G.P., ROY, A. and PATRA, A.K. (2016) Effects of supplementation of manganese with or without phytase on growth performance, carcass traits, muscle and tibia composition, and immunity in broiler chickens. Livestock Science 191: 80-85.
HALPIN, K.M. and BAKER, D.H. (1986) Long-term effects of corn, soybean meal, wheat bran and fish meal on manganese utilisation in the chick. Poultry Science 65: 1371-1374.
HOSSAIN, S.M. and BERTECHINI, A.G. (1998) Effect of varying manganese and available phosphorus levels in the diet on egg production and eggshell quality of layers. Animal Feed Science and Technology 71: 303-308.
JI, F., LUO, X.G., LU, L., LIU, B. and YU, S.X. (2006) Effect of manganese source on manganese absorption by the intestine of broilers. Poultry Science 85: 1947-1952.
KLIMIS-TAVANTZIS, D.J., KRIS-ETHERTON, P.M. and LEACH, R.M. (1983) The effect of dietary manganese deficiency on cholesterol and lipid metabolism in the estrogen-treated chicken and the laying hen. Journal of Nutrition 113: 320-327.
KOROL, W., WOJCIK, S., MATYKA, S. and HANSEN, T.S. (1996) Availability of manganese from different manganese oxides and their effect on performance of broiler chickens. Journal of Animal and Feed Science 5: 273-279.
LEACH, R.M. (1976) Metabolism and function of manganese, in: PRASAD, A.S. (Ed) Trace Elements in Human Health and Disease Vol. II, pp. 235-247 (Academic Press, New York).
LEACH, R.M. and GROSS, J.R. (1983) The effect of manganese deficiency upon the ultrastructure of the eggshell. Poultry Science 62: 499-504.
LEESON, S., SUMMERS, J.D. (2005) Commercial Poultry Nutrition, 3rd ed. (Ontario, Canada and University Books).
LI, S., LIN, Y., LU, L., XI, L., WANG, Z., HAO, S., ZHANG, L., LI, K. and LUO, X. (2011) An estimation of the manganese requirement for broilers from 1 to 21 days of age. Biological Trace Element Research 143: 939-948.
LU, L., JI, C., LUO, X.G., LIU, B. and YU, S.X. (2006) The effect of supplemental manganese in broilers diets on abdominal fat deposition and meat quality. Animal Feed Science and Technology 129: 49-59.
LU, L., LUO, X.G., JI, C., LIU, B. and YU, S.X. (2007) Effect of manganese supplementation on carcass traits, meat quality and lipid oxidation in broilers. Journal of Animal Science 85: 812-822.
MILES, R.D., HENRY, P.R., SAMPATH, V.C., SHIVAZAD, M. and COMER, C.W. (2003) Relative bioavailability of novel amino acid chelates of manganese and copper for chicks. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research 12: 417-423.
NRC (1994) Nutrient Requirement of Poultry, Washington, DC, National Academy Press.
OCHRIMENKO, C., LEMSER, A., RICHTTER, G., KRAUSE, U. and BONSAK, H. (1992) Effect of manganese content in laying hen feed with different Ca and mineral level on the eggshell quality and bone mineralisation of hens. Archiv für Tierernaehrung 42: 25-35.
SAZZAD, H.M., BERTECHINI, A.G. and NOBRE, P.T.C. (1994) Egg production, tissue deposition and mineral metabolism in two strains of commercial layers with various levels of manganese in the diet. Animal Feed Science and Technology 46: 271-275.
SUNDER, G.S., PANDA, A.K., GOPINATH, N.C., RAJU, M.V., RAO, S.V.R. and KUMAR, C.V. (2006) Effect of supplemental manganese on mineral uptake by tissues and immune response in broiler chickens. The Journal of Poultry Science 43: 371-377.
SUTTLE, N.F. (2010) Mineral Nutrition of Livestock (4th ed.,) CAB International, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, pp. 355-376.
SWIATKIEWICZ, S. and KORELESKI, J. (2008) The effect of zinc and manganese source in the diet for laying hens on eggshell and bones quality. Veterinarni Medicina 53: 555-563.
TURK, D.E., GUNJI, D.S. and MOLITORIS, P. (1982) Coccidial infections and manganese absorption. Poultry Science 61: 2430-2434.
XIAO, J.F., ZHANG, Y.N., WU, S.G., ZHANG, H.J., YUE, H.Y. and QI, G.H. (2014) Manganese supplementation enhances the synthesis of glycosaminoglycan in eggshell membrane: a strategy to improve eggshell quality in laying hens. Poultry Science 9: 380-388.
XIAO, J.F., WU, S.G., ZHANG, H.J., YUE, H.Y., WANG, J., JI, F. and QI, G.H. (2015) Bioefficacy comparison of organic manganese with inorganic manganese for eggshell quality in Hy-Line Brown laying hens. Poultry Science 94: 1871-1878.
XIE, J., TIAN, C., ZHU, Y., ZHANG, L., LU, L. and LUO, X. (2014) Effects of inorganic and organic manganese supplementation on gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I and follicle-stimulating hormone expression and reproductive performance of broiler breeder hens. Poultry Science 93: 959-969.
UNDERWOOD, E.J. (1977) Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition, 4th edt. Academic Press, London.
VENGLOVSKA, K., GRESAKOVA, L., PLACHA, I., RYZNER, M. and COBANOVA, K. (2014) Effects of feed supplementation with manganese from its different sources on performance and egg parameters of laying hens. Czech Journal of Animal Science 59: 147-155.
WANG, F., LU, L., LI, S., LIU, S., ZHANG, L., YAO, J. and LUO, X. (2012) Relative bioavailability of manganese proteinate for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet. Biological Trace Element Research 146: 181-186.
WEDEKIND, K.J. and BAKER, D.H. (1990a) Manganese utilisation in chicks as affected by excess calcium and phosphorus ingestion. Poultry Science 69: 977-984.
WEDEKIND, K.J. and BAKER, D.H. (1990b) Effect of varying calcium and phosphorus level on manganese utilisation. Poultry Science 69: 1156-1164.
YAN, F. and WALDROUP, P.W. (2006) Evaluation of Mintrex® manganese as a sources manganese for young broilers. International Journal of Poultry Science 5: 708-713.
YANG, X., ZHONG, L., AN, X., ZHANG, N., ZHANG, L., HAN, J., YAO, J., COTE, C. and SUN, Y. (2012) Effects of diets supplemented with zinc and manganese on performance and related parameters in laying hens. Animal Science Journal 83: 474-481.
YILDIZ, A.Ö., OLGUN, O. and CUFADAR, Y. (2010) The effect of manganese and phytase in the diet for laying hens on performance traits and eggshell quality. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 9: 32-36.
YILDIZ, A.Ö., CUFADAR, Y. and OLGUN, O. (2011) Effects of dietary organic and inorganic manganese supplementation on performance, egg quality and bone mineralisation in laying hens. Revue de Medecine Veterinaire 162: 482-488.
ZAMANI, A., RAHMANI, H.R. and POURREZA, J. (2005) Supplementation of a corn-soybean meal diet with manganese and zinc improves eggshell quality in laying hens. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science 8: 1311-1317.



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed