Skip to main content Accessibility help

Weed Management in Glyphosate Resistant Soybean: Weed Emergence Patterns in Relation to Glyphosate Treatment Timing

  • Kari L. Hilgenfeld (a1), Alex R. Martin (a1), David A. Mortensen (a2) and Stephen C. Mason (a1)


Knowing when weed species are likely to emerge can aid in developing effective integrated weed management programs. When using nonresidual herbicides such as glyphosate for weed control, treatment timing is critical. This study characterized the emergence patterns of common lambsquarters, common sunflower, common waterhemp, eastern black nightshade, ivyleaf morningglory, shattercane, and woolly cupgrass in soybean, in relation to common glyphosate application timings. Approximately 90% or more of common lambsquarters, common sunflower, and common waterhemp seedlings emerged before the end of May, both in 2000 and 2001. Both ivyleaf morningglory and shattercane emerged from late April to mid-August, allowing these species to avoid glyphosate applications timed to prevent early-season weed competition. Avoidance through periodicity in emergence underscores the importance of integrating multiple tactics to ensure that difficult to manage weeds are not selected for in this management system.


Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail:


Hide All
Bridges, D. C. 1992. Crop Losses Due to Weeds in the United States. Champaign, IL: Weed Science Society of America.
Buhler, D. D., Hartzler, R. G., and Forcella, F. 1998. Weed seed bank dynamics: implications to weed management. J. Crop Prod. 1:145168.
Buhler, D. D., Hartzler, R. G., Forcella, F., and Gunsolus, J. L. 1997. Sustainable Agriculture: Relative Emergence Sequence for Weeds of Corn and Soybeans. Iowa State University Extension Bulletin SA-11. Pp. 14.
Chepil, W. S. 1946. Germination of weed seeds: I. Longevity, periodicity of germination, and vitality of seeds in cultivated soil. Sci. Agric. 26:307346.
Fenner, M. 1985. Seed Ecology. New York: Chapman Hall. Pp. 87104.
Forcella, F., Wilson, R. G., and Dekker, J. et al. 1997. Weed seed bank emergence across the Corn Belt. Weed Sci. 45:6776.
Forcella, F., Wilson, R. G., Renner, K. A., Dekker, J., Harvey, R. G., Alm, D. A., Buhler, D. D., and Cardina, J. A. 1992. Weed seedbanks of the U.S. cornbelt: magnitude, variation, emergence, and application. Weed Sci. 40:636644.
Hartzler, R. G., Buhler, D. D., and Stoltenberg, D. E. 1999. Emergence characteristics of four annual weed species. Weed Sci. 47:578584.
Hatfield, J. L. and Egli, D. B. 1974. Effect of temperature on the rate of soybean hypocotyls elongation and field emergence. Crop Sci. 14:423426.
Iowa State University. 2000. Weed Emergence Sequences: Knowledge to Guide Scouting and Control. Iowa State University. University Extension IPM 64a. P. 1.
Jordan, N. R. and Jannink, J. L. 1997. Assessing the practical importance of weed evolution: a research agenda. Weed Res. 37:237246.
Jordan, D. L., York, A. C., Griffin, J. L., Clay, P. A., Vidrine, P. R., and Reynolds, D. B. 1997. Influence of application variables on efficacy of glyphosate. Weed Technol. 11:354362.
King, L. J. 1966. Weeds of the World. Biology and Control. New York: Interscience. 526 p.
Martin, A. R., Roeth, F. W., Wilson, R. G., Wicks, G. A., Klein, R. N., Lyon, D. J., and Knezevic, S. Z. 2001. 2001 Guide for Weed Management in Nebraska. Nebraska Cooperative Extension Publication EC 01-130-D. Pp. 1107.
Mohler, C. L. 2001. Weed life history: Identifying vulnerabilities. in Liebman, M., Mohler, C. L., and Staver, C. P., eds. Ecological Management of Agricultural Weeds. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 4098.
Ogg, A. G. Jr. and Dawson, J. H. 1984. Time of emergence of eight weed species. Weed Sci. 32:327335.
Owen, M. D. K. 1997. North American developments in herbicide tolerant crops. Proc. Brighton Crop Prot. conf. Weeds. 2:955963.
Schweizer, E. E., Westra, P., and Lybecker, D. W. 1992. Controlling weeds in corn (Zea mays) rows with an in-row cultivator versus decisions made by a computer model. Weed Sci. 42:593600.
Stoller, E. W. and Wax, L. M. 1973. Periodicity of germination and emergence of some annual weeds. Weed Sci. 21:574580.



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed