Greenhouse and growth chamber experiments were conducted to evaluate primisulfuron phytotoxicity to downy brome (Bromus tectorum) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) as a function of herbicide placement, adjuvants, and environmental conditions. Primisulfuron rates needed to produce GR50 (50% growth reduction) values were 0.97 ± 0.57 and 8.07 ± 1.85 g/ha for downy brome and Kentucky bluegrass, respectively. Primisulfuron was applied to downy brome and Kentucky bluegrass at three placement sites: foliar, soil, and foliar plus soil. Foliar or foliar plus soil applications were more effective at reducing downy brome dry weights than the soil application of primisulfuron, whereas Kentucky bluegrass was injured more from the soil or foliar plus soil applications than from the foliar application of primisulfuron. Primisulfuron at 5 g/ha applied alone reduced downy brome dry weights by 5%, whereas when an adjuvant was added, dry weights were reduced by 52 to 83%. Primisulfuron was more phytotoxic to downy brome at alternating temperatures of 8 to 16 C and 16 to 24 C than at 0 to 8 C. Phytotoxicity of primisulfuron was less when downy brome plants were stressed for soil moisture after herbicide treatments than when the plants were not stressed or only stressed before treatment.