Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Invasion of Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum) into the U.S.: Lessons Learned

  • J. Jeffrey Mullahey (a1), Donn G. Shilling (a2), P. Mislevy (a3) and R. A. Akanda (a4)

Abstract

Tropical soda apple (SOLVI) is an introduced, perennial broadleaf plant that has invaded Florida agricultural land and natural ecosystems and has spread to other states (Georgia, Alabama, South Carolina, Louisiana, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Pennsylvania). Tropical soda apple was first collected in Florida in 1988. In 1990, SOLVI-infested land was approximately 10,000 ha, in 1993, 162,000 ha, and in 1995, approximately 0.5 million ha were reported infested in Florida. Rapid spread of this invasive plant has occurred from seeds transported in cattle, hay, sod, grass seeds, water, and wildlife (deer, feral hogs, birds). Animals will not eat the foliage but will consume the fruits and spread the seeds in their feces. This exotic weed is an indeterminate plant with seed production averaging 50,000/plant/yr, seed germination of 70–90%, and seed longevity in soil of up to 1 yr. Integrated weed management strategies include prevention (avoidance of contaminated hay or grass seed, control of movement of cattle), control (mechanical, chemical), and monitoring. Seed production must be prevented and landowners should adopt a zero tolerance toward SOLVI. During the time (1990–1995) research (biology, ecology, control) was being conducted to control SOLVI from Florida, this weed had infested the entire state and escaped into other states. Risk assessment criteria for new plant introductions must be developed and implemented to prevent future biological pollution.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Akanda, R. U., Mullahey, J. J., and Shilling, D. G. 1996. Environmental factors affecting germination of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum). Weed Sci. 44:570574.
Brown, W. F., Mullahey, J. J., and Akanda, R. U. 1996. Survivability of tropical soda apple seed in the gastro-intestinal tract of cattle. Proc. Tropical Soda Apple Symp., Bartow, FL. pp. 3539.
Coile, N. C. 1993. Tropical Soda Apple, Solanum viarum Dunal: The Plant from Hell (Solanaceae). Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Botany Circ. 27. 4 p.
McGovern, R. J., Polston, J. E., and Mullahey, J. J. 1994. Solanum viarum: weed reservoir of plant viruses in Florida. Int. J. Pest Manage. 40:270273.
Mislevy, P., Mullahey, J. J., and Colvin, D. L. 1996. Management practices for tropical soda apple control: update. Proc. Tropical Soda Apple Symp., Bartow, FL, January 9–10, 1996. pp. 6167.
Mullahey, J. J. 1996. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal), a biological pollutant threatening Florida. Castanea 61(3): 255260.
Mullahey, J. J. and Akanda, R. U. 1996. Reproductive biology and control of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum). Proc. South. Weed Sci. Soc. 49:146147.
Mullahey, J. J., Akanda, R. U., and Shilling, D. G. 1996. Integrated management strategies to control Solanum viarum . Proc. Second Int. Weed Control Congr., Copenhagen, Denmark 3:10091014.
Mullahey, J. J. and Colvin, D. 1993. TSA: a new noxious weed in Florida. Florida Cooperative Extension Service WRS-7. 4 p.
Mullahey, J. J. and Cornell, J. 1994. Biology of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) an introduced weed in Florida. Weed Technol. 8:465469.
Mullahey, J. J., Cornell, J. A., and Colvin, D. L. 1993a. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) control, Weed Technol. 7:723727.
Mullahey, J. J., Hogue, P., Hill, K., Sumner, S., and Nifong, S., 1994. Tropical soda apple census. Fla. Cattleman Mag. 58:3.
Mullahey, J. J., Nee, M., Wunderlin, R. P., and Delaney, K. R. 1993b. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum): a new weed threat in subtropical regions. Weed Technol. 7:783786.
Nee, M. 1991. Synopsis of Solanum section Acanthophora: a group of interest for glycoalkaloids. In Hawkes, J. G., Lester, R. N., Nee, M., and Estrada, N., eds. Solanaceae III: Taxonomy, Chemistry, Evolution. Richmond, Surrey, UK: Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew. pp. 257266.
Patterson, D. T., McGowan, M., Mullahey, J. J., and Westbrooks, R. G. 1997. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal) and its potential range in the U.S. Weed Sci. 45:404408.
Pheloung, P. C. 1995. Determining Weed Potential of New Plant Introductions to Australia. A report on the development of a Weed Risk Assessment system commissioned and endorsed by the Australian Weeds Committee and the Plant Industries Committee. Agricultural Protection Board, Western Australia. 143 p.
Pingle, A. R. and Dnyansagar, V. R. 1979. Induction of germination in Solanum viarum . Curr. Sci. 48:449450.
Reichard, S. H. 1997. Learning from the past. The Public Garden Special Supplement, January 1997:2527.
Reichard, S. H. and Hamilton, C. W. 1997. Predicting invasions of woody plants introduced into North America. Conserv. Biol. 11:193203.
Sahoo, S. and Dutta, P. K. 1984. Solanum viarum, a plant for the steroid drug industry. Indian Hortic. 28:1518.
Wunderlin, R. P., Hansen, B. F., DeLaney, K. R., Nee, M., and Mullahey, J. J. 1993. Solanum viarum and S. tampicense: two potentially noxious weeds new to Florida and the United States. SIDA Contrib. Bot. 15:605611.

Keywords

Invasion of Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum) into the U.S.: Lessons Learned

  • J. Jeffrey Mullahey (a1), Donn G. Shilling (a2), P. Mislevy (a3) and R. A. Akanda (a4)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed