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Integrating Cover Crops and POST Herbicides for Glyphosate-Resistant Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Control in Corn

  • Matthew S. Wiggins (a1), M. Angela McClure (a1), Robert M. Hayes (a1) and Lawrence E. Steckel (a1)


Field experiments were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in Jackson, TN, to evaluate the efficacy of integrating cover crops and POST herbicides in corn to control glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth. Crimson clover and hairy vetch were planted in the fall and accumulated greater than 1,600 kg ha−1 aboveground biomass by time of termination. Crimson clover and hairy vetch provided 62% and 58% Palmer amaranth control 14 d before application, respectively. POST herbicide treatments of glyphosate + S-metolachlor + mesotrione + atrazine, thiencarbazone-methyl + tembotrione + atrazine, and glyphosate + atrazine were applied when Palmer amaranth reached 15 cm tall. The herbicide treatments provided greater than 95% control of Palmer amaranth 28 d after application. In addition to Palmer amaranth suppression, corn was taller at V5 and V7 following a hairy vetch cover crop. Hairy vetch and crimson clover residues provided early season weed suppression because of biomass accumulation. Palmer amaranth in the nontreated control plots reached 15 cm 4 and 3 d ahead of the cover-treated plots in 2013 and 2014, respectively. This could potentially increase POST herbicide-application flexibility for producers. Results of this trial also suggest that cover crops alone are not a means of season-long control of GR Palmer amaranth. From a herbicide resistance-management perspective, the integration of cover crops with herbicide mixtures that incorporate multiple sites of action should aid in mitigating the further selection of herbicide resistance in Palmer amaranth.

Experimentos de campo fueron realizados, en 2013 y 2014 en Jackson, Tennessee, para evaluar la eficacia de integrar cultivos de cobertura y herbicidas POST en maíz para el control de Amaranthus palmeri resistente a glyphosate (GR). Trifolium incarnatum y Vicia villosa brindaron 62% y 58% de control de A. palmeri 14 d después de la aplicación, respectivamente. Los tratamientos de herbicidas POST: glyphosate + S-metolachlor + mesotrione + atrazine, thiencarbazone-methyl + tembotrione + atrazine, y glyphosate + atrazine fueron aplicados cuando A. palmeri alcanzó 15 cm de altura. Los tratamientos de herbicidas brindaron un control de A. palmeri superior a 95%, 28 d después de la aplicación. Además de la supresión de A. palmeri, el maíz fue más alto en los estadios V5 y V7 después del cultivo de cobertura V. villosa. V. villosa y T. incarnatum suprimieron las malezas, temprano durante la temporada, producto de la acumulación de biomasa. En las parcelas testigo sin tratamiento, A. palmeri alcanzó 15 cm, 4 y 3 d antes que en las parcelas tratadas con cultivos de cobertura, en 2013 y 2014, respectivamente. Esto podría aumentar potencialmente la flexibilidad en la aplicación de herbicidas POST para los productores. Los resultados de este estudio también sugieren que los cultivos de cobertura solos no son aptos para alcanzar un control de A. palmeri GR durante toda la temporada de crecimiento. Desde una perspectiva de manejo de resistencia a herbicidas, la integración de cultivos de cobertura con mezclas de herbicidas que incorporan múltiples sitios de acción debería ayudar a mitigar la selección adicional de resistencia a herbicidas en A. palmeri.

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