Skip to main content Accessibility help

Integrated Weed Management Systems Identified for Jointed Goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) in the Pacific Northwest

  • Frank L. Young (a1), Daniel A. Ball (a2), Donn C. Thill (a3), J. Richard Alldredge (a4), Alex G. Ogg (a5) and Steven S. Seefeldt (a6)...


Jointed goatgrass is an invasive winter annual grass weed that is a particular problem in the low to intermediate rainfall zones of the Pacific Northwest (PNW). For the most part, single-component research has been the focus of previous jointed goatgrass studies. In 1996, an integrated cropping systems study for the management of jointed goatgrass was initiated in Washington, Idaho, and Oregon in the traditional winter wheat (WW)–fallow (F) region of the PNW. The study evaluated eight integrated weed management (IWM) systems that included combinations of either a one-time stubble burn (B) or a no-burn (NB) treatment, a rotation of either WW–F–WW or spring wheat (SW)–F–WW, and either a standard (S) or an integrated (I) practice of planting winter wheat. This study is the first, to our knowledge, to evaluate and identify complete IWM systems for jointed goatgrass control in winter wheat. At the Idaho location, in a very low weed density, no IWM system was identified that consistently had the highest yield, reduced grain dockage, and reduced weed densities. However, successful IWM systems for jointed goatgrass management were identified as weed populations increased. At the Washington location, in a moderate population of jointed goatgrass, the best IWM system based on the above responses was the B:SW–F–WW:S system. At the Washington site, this system was better than the integrated planting system because the competitive winter wheat variety did not perform well in drought conditions during the second year of winter wheat. At the Oregon site, a location with a high weed density, the system B:SW–F–WW:I produced consistently higher grain yields, reduced grain dockage, and reduced jointed goatgrass densities. These integrated systems, if adopted by PNW growers in the wheat–fallow area, would increase farm profits by decreasing dockage, decreasing farm inputs, and reducing herbicide resistance in jointed goatgrass.

La Aegilops cylindrica Host AEGCY es un zacate invasivo anual de invierno, que representa un problema en zonas de lluvia de escasa a moderada del Pacifico Noreste (PNW). En la mayoría de los casos, el enfoque de los estudios previos acerca de Aegilops cilíndrica, ha sido la investigación de un solo componente. En 1996, un estudio integrado de sistemas de cultivo para el manejo de Aegilops cylindrica, se inició en Washington, Idaho y Oregón en la región tradicional Triticum aestivum L. de invierno (WW)–barbecho (F) en el PNW. El estudio evaluó ocho sistemas integrados de manejo de malezas (IWM) que incluyeron combinaciones de ya sea, una quema única de rastrojos (B) o sin quema (NB), o bien de una rotación de WW–F–WW o Triticum aestivum L. de primavera (SW)–F–WW y de una práctica normal (S) o una integrada (I) de siembra de Triticum aestivum L. de invierno. Este estudio es el primero en evaluar e identificar sistemas completos IWM para el control de Aegilops cylindrica en el cultivo de Triticum aestivum L. de invierno. En la locación Idaho, con muy baja densidad de malezas, no se identificó ningún sistema IWM que consistentemente logrará reducir al máximo la pérdida del grano y las densidades de la maleza. Sin embargo, se identificaron sistemas IWM exitosos para el manejo de Aegilops cilíndrica conforme se fueron identificando las poblaciones de las malezas. En la locación Washington, con una moderada población de Aegilops cylindrica, el mejor sistema IWM basado en la respuesta anteriormente citada fue el sistema B:SW–F–WW:S. En Washington, este sistema fue mejor que el sistema de siembra integrado porque la variedad competitiva del Triticum aestivum L. de invierno no se desarrollo bien en condiciones de sequía durante el segundo año. En Oregón, una locación con una alta densidad de malezas, el sistema B:SW–F–WW:I obtuvo consistentemente mayores rendimientos de grano, redujo la pérdida del mismo y disminuyó la densidad de Aegilops cylindrica. Si los productores en PNW adoptaran estos sistemas integrados en la región del Triticum aestivum L.–barbecho, incrementarían sus ganancias al disminuir la pérdida del grano, los insumos del campo y la resistencia del Aegilops cylindrica al herbicida.


Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail:


Hide All
Anderson, R. L. 1997. Cultural systems can reduce reproductive potential of winter annual grasses. Weed Technol. 11:608613.
Auld, B. A., Menz, K. M., and Tisdell, C. A. 1987. Weed control economics. New York: Academic. Pp. 4783.
Ball, D. A., Young, F. L., and Ogg, A. G. Jr. 1999. Selective control of jointed goatgrass with imazamox in herbicide-resistant wheat. Weed Technol. 13:7782.
Blackshaw, R. E., Harker, K. N., O'Donovan, J. T., Beckie, H. J., and Smith, E. G. 2008. Ongoing development of integrated weed management systems on the Canadian Prairies. Weed Sci. 56:168172.
Blackshaw, R. E., Semach, G., Li, X., O'Donovan, J. T., and Harker, N. 1999. An integrated weed management approach to managing foxtail barley (Hordeum jubatum) in conservation tillage systems. Weed Technol. 13:347353.
Bolton, F. E. 1983. Cropping practices: Pacific Northwest. Pages 419426. In Diegne, H. E. and Willis, W. O. eds. Dryland Agriculture. Agron. Monogr. 23. Madison, WI: ASA, CSSA, and SSSA.
Buchanan, G. A. 1976. Management of the weed pests of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Pages 168184. In Fadeyev, Y. and Adkisson, P. eds. Proceedings of the U.S.–U.S.S.R. Symposium: The Integrated Control of the Arthropod, Disease and Weed Pests of Cotton, Grain Sorghum and Deciduous Fruit, Lubbock, TX. College Station, TX: Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Miscellaneous Publications 1276.
Buhler, D. D. 2002. 50th-anniversary-invited article: challenges and opportunities for integrated weed management. Weed Sci. 50:273280.
Burn, A. J., Coaker, T. H., and Jepson, P. C. 1987. Integrated pest management. San Diego, CA: Academic.
Donald, W. W. and Ogg, A. G. Jr. 1991. Biology and control of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica), a review. Weed Technology. 5:317.
Elmore, C. L. 1991. Integrated weed management symposium. Weed Technol. 5:647.
Gill, K. S., Arshad, M. A., and Moyer, J. R. 1997. Cultural control of weeds. Pages 237275. In Pimental, D. ed. Techniques for Reducing Pesticide Use. New York: J. Wiley.
Hsu, J. C. 1984. Constrained simultaneous confidence intervals for multiple comparisons with the best. Ann. Stat. 12:11361144.
Kappler, B. F., Lyon, D. J., Stahlman, P. W., Miller, S. D., and Eskridge, K. M. 2002. Wheat plant density influences jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) competitiveness. Weed Technol. 16:102108.
Klein, R. N. and Hanson, G. E. 2009. Controlling jointed goatgrass in the central Great Plains. Proc. West. Soc. Weed Sci. 62:3334.
Kovach, D. A., Thill, D. C., and Young, F. L. 1988. A water-spray system for removing seed from soil. Weed Technol. 2:338341.
Liebman, M., Mohler, C. L., and Staver, C. P. 2001. Ecological Management of Agricultural Weeds. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 532. p. 532
Liebman, M. and Gallandt, E. R. 1997. Many little hammers: Ecological management of crop-weed interactions. Pages 291341. In Jackson, L. ed. Ecology in Agriculture. New York: Academic.
Lyon, D. J. and Baltensperger, D. D. 1995. Cropping systems control winter annual grass weeds in winter wheat. J. Prod. Agric. 8:535539.
Mesbah, A. O. and Miller, S. D. 1999. Fertilizer placement affects jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) competition in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). Weed Technol. 13:374377.
Miller, G. R. 1982. Integrated weed management systems technology for crop production and crop rotation. Weed Sci. (Suppl.) 30:1.
Miller, S. D., Kniss, A. R., Wilson, D. W., and Lyon, J. 2009. Jointed goatgrass research from Wyoming and Nebraska. Proc. West. Soc. Weed Sci. 62:34.
National Jointed Goatgrass Research Program 2009. Accessed September 10, 2009.
O'Donovan, J. T., Blackshaw, R. E., Harker, K. N., Clayton, G. W., Moyer, J. R., Dosdall, L. M., Maurice, D. C., and Turkington, T. K. 2007. Integrated approaches to managing weeds in spring-sown crops in western Canada. Crop Prot. 26:390398.
Ogg, A. G. Jr. and Seefeldt, S. S. 1999. Characterizing traits which enhance the competitiveness of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) against jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica). Weed Sci. 47:7480.
Peeper, T. F. 2009. Jointed goatgrass management strategies in Oklahoma winter wheat. Proc. West. Soc. Weed Sci. 62:30.
SAS 1999. User's Guide. Version 8.0. Cary, NC: SAS Institute.
Sanyal, D. 2008. Introduction to the integrated weed management revisited symposium. Weed Sci. 56:140.
Schillinger, W. F., Donaldson, E., Allan, R. E., and Jones, S. S. 1998. Winter wheat seedling emergence from deep sowing depths. Agron. J. 90:582586.
Schrieber, M. M. 1982. Influence of tillage, crop rotation, and weed management on giant foxtail (Setaria faberi) population dynamics on corn yield. Weed Sci. 40:645653.
Seefeldt, S. S., Ogg, A. G. Jr., and Hou, Y. 1999. Near-isogenic lines for Triticum aestivum height and crop competitiveness. Weed Sci. 47:316320.
Shaw, W. C. 1982. Integrated weed management systems technology for pest management. Weed Sci. (Suppl.) 30:212.
Smith, R. F. and van den Bosch, R. 1967. Integrated control. Pages 295340. In Kilgore, W. W. and Doute, R. L. eds. Pest Control: Biological, Physical, and Selected Chemical Methods. New York: Academic.
Swanton, C. J. and Weise, S. F. 1991. Integrated weed management: The rationale and approach. Weed Technol. 5:657663.
Thill, D. C., Lish, J. M., Callihan, R. H., and Bechinski, E. J. 1991. Integrated weed management—a component of integrated pest management: a critical review. Weed Technol. 5:648656.
Thorne, M. E., Young, F. L., Pan, W. L., Bafus, R., and Alldredge, J. R. 2003. No-till spring cereal cropping systems reduce wind erosion susceptibility in the wheat/fallow region of the Pacific Northwest. J. Soil Water Conserv. 58:250257.
Van Gessel, M. J. 1996. Successes of integrated weed management revisited symposium. Weed Sci. 56:140.
Westra, P., Gaines, T., Byrne, P., Ward, S., and Nissen, S. 2009. Jointed goatgrass research in Colorado over eleven years. Proc. West. Soc. Weed Sci. 62:2930.
White, A. D., Stahlman, P. W., and Northam, F. E. 2004. Impact of integrated management systems on jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) populations. Weed Sci. 52:10101017.
Whitesides, R. E., Ransom, C. V., and Morishita, D. W. 2009. Developing a jointed goatgrass management program for the inter-mountain west. Proc. West. Soc. Weed Sci. 62:3536.
Wicks, G. A. 1984. Integrated systems for control and management of downy brome (Bromus tectorum) in cropland. Weed Sci. 32 (Suppl. 1):2631.
Wicks, G. A., Nordquist, P. T., Baenziger, P. S., Klein, R. N., Hammous, R. H., and Watkins, J. E. 2004. Winter wheat cultivar characteristics affect annual weed suppression. Weed Technol. 18:988998.
William, R. D. and Warren, G. F. 1975. Competition between purple nutsedge and vegetables. Weed Sci. 23:317323.
Yenish, J. P. and Young, F. L. 2004. Winter wheat competition against jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) as influenced by wheat plant height, seeding rate, and seed size. Weed Sci. 52:9961001.
Young, F. L., Ball, D., and Thill, D. 2002. Integrated management of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) in Pacific Northwest dryland cropping systems. Pages 284286. In Jacob, H. S., Dodd, J., and Moore, J. H. eds. Papers and Proceedings of the 13th Australian Weeds Conference. Perth, Western Australia: Plant Protection Society of Western Australia.
Young, F. L., Gallandt, E. R., and Alldredge, J. R. 2000. Predicting winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) yield loss based on jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) populations from the previous season. Weed Technol. 14:423427.
Young, F. L., Ogg, A. G. Jr., and Dotray, P. A. 1990. Effect of postharvest field burning on jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) germination. Weed Technol. 4:123127.
Young, F. L., Ogg, A. G. Jr., Papendick, R. I., Thill, D. C., and Alldredge, J. R. 1994. Tillage and weed management affects winter wheat yield in an integrated pest management system. Agron J. 86:147154.
Young, F. L., Yenish, J. P., Walenta, D. L., Ball, D. A., and Alldredge, J. R. 2003. Spring-germinating jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) produces viable spikelets in spring-seeded wheat. Weed Sci. 51:379385.


Integrated Weed Management Systems Identified for Jointed Goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) in the Pacific Northwest

  • Frank L. Young (a1), Daniel A. Ball (a2), Donn C. Thill (a3), J. Richard Alldredge (a4), Alex G. Ogg (a5) and Steven S. Seefeldt (a6)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed