Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Herbicide programs for the termination of grass and broadleaf cover crop species

  • Derek M. Whalen (a1), Mandy D. Bish (a2), Bryan G. Young (a3), Shawn P. Conley (a4), Daniel B. Reynolds (a5), Jason K. Norsworthy (a6) and Kevin W. Bradley (a7)...

Abstract

The use of cover crops in soybean production systems has increased in recent years. There are many questions surrounding cover crops—specifically about benefits to crop production and most effective herbicides for spring termination. No studies evaluating cover crop termination have been conducted across a wide geographic area, to our knowledge. Therefore, field experiments were conducted in 2016 and 2017 in Arkansas, Indiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Wisconsin for spring termination of regionally specific cover crops. Glyphosate-, glufosinate-, and paraquat-containing treatments were applied between April 15 and April 29 in 2016 and April 10 and April 20 in 2017. Visible control of cover crops was determined 28 days after treatment. Glyphosate-containing herbicide treatments were more effective than paraquat- and glufosinate-containing treatments, providing 71% to 97% control across all site years. Specifically, glyphosate at 1.12 kg ha−1 applied alone or with 2,4-D at 0.56 kg ha−1, saflufenacil at 0.025 kg ha−1, or clethodim at 0.56 kg ha−1 provided the most effective control on all grass cover crop species. Glyphosate-, paraquat-, or glufosinate-containing treatments were generally most effective on broadleaf cover crop species when applied with 2,4-D or dicamba. Results from this research indicate that proper herbicide selection is crucial to successfully terminate cover crops in the spring.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Derek M. Whalen, Division of Plant Sciences, 108 Waters Hall, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211. (Email: derek.whalen@basf.com)

References

Hide All
Bell, HD, Norsworthy, JK, Scott, RC (2016) Integrating cereals and deep tillage with herbicide programs in glyphosate-and glufosinate-resistant soybean for glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth management. Weed Technol 30:8598
Blouin, DC, Webster, EP, Bond, JA (2011) On the analysis of combined experiments. Weed Technol 25:165169
Carmer, S, Nyquist, W, Walker, W (1989) Least significant differences for combined analyses of experiments with two-or three-factor treatment designs. Agron J 81:665672
Cornelius, CD, Bradley, KW (2017a) Herbicide programs for the termination of various cover crop species. Weed Technol 31:19
Cornelius, CD, Bradley, KW (2017b) Influence of various cover crop species on winter and summer annual weed emergence in soybean. Weed Technol 31:503513
Creamer, NG, Dabney, SM (2002) Killing cover crops mechanically: review of recent literature and assessment of new research results. Am J Altern Agric 17:3240
Culpepper, AS, York, AC, Batts, RB, Jennings, KM (2000) Weed management in glufosinate-and glyphosate-resistant soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technol 14:7788
Curran, WS, Wallace, JM, Mirsky, S, Crockett, B (2015) Effectiveness of herbicides for control of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) in winter wheat. Weed Technol 29:509518
DeVore, JD, Norsworthy, JK, Brye, KR (2013) Influence of deep tillage, a rye cover crop, and various soybean production systems on Palmer amaranth emergence in soybean. Weed Technol 27:263270
Kandel, YR, Wise, KA, Bradley, CA, Tenuta, AU, Mueller, DS (2016) Effect of planting date, seed treatment, and cultivar on plant population, sudden death syndrome, and yield of soybean. Plant Dis 100:17351743
Keene, C, Curran, W, Wallace, J, Ryan, M, Mirsky, S, VanGessel, M, Barbercheck, M (2017) Cover crop termination timing is critical in organic rotational no-till systems. Agron J 109:272282
Kornecki, T, Price, A, Raper, R, Arriaga, F (2009) New roller crimper concepts for mechanical termination of cover crops in conservation agriculture. Renew Agric Food Syst 24:165173
Kruidhof, H, Gallandt, E, Haramoto, E, Bastiaans, L (2011) Selective weed suppression by cover crop residues: effects of seed mass and timing of species’ sensitivity. Weed Res 51:177186
Loux, MM, Dobbels, AF, Bradley, KW, Johnson, WG, Young, BG, Spaunhorst, DJ, Norsworthy, JK, Palhano, M, Steckel, LE (2017) Influence of cover crops on management of Amaranthus species in glyphosate-and glufosinate-resistant soybean. Weed Technol 31:487495
Myers, R, Ellis, C, Hoormann, R, Reinbott, T, Kitchen, N, Reisner, J (2015) Cover Crops in Missouri: Putting Them to Work on Your Farm. Missouri-Columbia Uo No. G04161. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Extension. 6 p
Nandula, VK, Poston, DH, Eubank, TW, Koger, CH, Reddy, KN (2007) Differential response to glyphosate in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) populations from Mississippi. Weed Technol 21:477482
Nascente, A, Crusciol, CAC, Cobucci, T, Velini, ED (2013) Cover crop termination timing on rice crop production in a no-till system. Crop Sci 53:26592669
National Climatic Data Center (2018) Data tools: 1981 to 2010. https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/cdo-web/datatools/normals. Accessed: March 2, 2018
Neu, K, Nair, A (2017) Effect of planting date and cultivar on cereal rye development and termination for organic no-till production systems. Farm Progress Reports. 1:2327. https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1195&context=farmprogressreports. Accessed: March 1, 2018
Palhano, MG, Norsworthy, JK, Barber, T (2018) Evaluation of chemical termination options for cover crops. Weed Technol 32:227235
Pimentel, D, Harvey, C, Resosudarmo, P, Sinclair, K, Kurz, D, McNair, M, Crist, S, Shpritz, L, Fitton, L, Saffouri, R (1995) Environmental and economic costs of soil erosion and conservation benefits. Science 267:11171123
Raper, R, Simionescu, P, Kornecki, T, Price, A, Reeves, D (2004) Reducing vibration while maintaining efficacy of rollers to terminate cover crops. Appl Eng Agric 20:581584
Reddy, KN (2001) Effects of cereal and legume cover crop residues on weeds, yield, and net return in soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technol 15:660668
Reddy, KN, Zablotowicz, RM, Locke, MA, Koger, CH (2003) Cover crop tillage, and herbicide effect on weeds, soil properties, microbial populations, and soybean yield. Weed Sci 51:987994
Riar, DS, Norsworthy, JK, Griffith, GM (2011) Herbicide programs for enhanced glyphosate-resistant and glufosinate-resistant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Weed Technol 25:526534
Sainju, UM, Singh, BP (1997) Winter cover crops for sustainable agricultural systems: influence on soil properties, water quality, and crop yields. HortScience 32:2128
[SARE] Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (2017) 2017 Cover Crop Survey Analysis. https://www.sare.org/Learning-Center/From-the-Field/North-Central-SARE-From-the-Field/2017-Cover-Crop-Survey-Analysis. Accessed: March 5, 2019
Thelen, KD, Mutch, DR, Martin, TE (2004) Utility of interseeded winter cereal rye in organic soybean production systems. Agron J 96:281284
Webster, TM, Scully, BT, Grey, TL, Culpepper, AS (2013) Winter cover crops influence Amaranthus palmeri establishment. Crop Prot 52:130135
Whitaker, JR, York, AC, Jordan, DL, Culpepper, AS (2011) Weed management with glyphosate-and glufosinate-based systems in PHY 485 WRF cotton. Weed Technol 25:183191
White, RH, Worsham, AD (1990) Control of legume cover crops in no-till corn (Zea mays) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Weed Technol 4:5762
Williams, MM, Mortensen, DA, Doran, JW (1998) Assessment of weed and crop fitness in cover crop residues for integrated weed management. Weed Sci 46:595603
[WSSA] Weed Science Society of America (2017) WSSA survey ranks most common and most troublesome weeds in broadleaf crops, fruits and vegetables. http://wssa.net/2017/05/wssa-survey-ranks-most-common-and-most-troublesome-weeds-in-broadleaf-crops-fruits-and-vegetables/. Accessed: March 5, 2018
Young, FL, Whaley, DK, Lawrence, NC, Burke, IC (2016) Feral rye (Secale cereale) control in winter canola in the Pacific Northwest. Weed Technol 30:163170

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed