Skip to main content Accessibility help

Field dissipation of S-metolachlor in organic and mineral soils used for sugarcane production in Florida

  • Jose V. Fernandez (a1), D. Calvin Odero (a2), Gregory E. MacDonald (a3), Jason A. Ferrell (a4), Brent A. Sellers (a5) and P. Christopher Wilson (a6)...


Dissipation of S-metolachlor, a soil-applied herbicide, on organic and mineral soils used for sugarcane production in Florida was evaluated using field studies in 2013 to 2016. S-metolachlor was applied PRE at 2,270 g ha−1 on organic and mineral soils with 75% and 1.6% organic matter, respectively. The rate of dissipation of S-metolachlor was rapid on mineral soils compared with organic soils. Dissipation of S-metolachlor on organic soils followed a negative linear trend resulting in half-lives (DT50) ranging from 50 to 126 d. S-metolachlor loss on organic soils was more rapid under high soil-moisture conditions than in corresponding low soil-moisture conditions. On mineral soils, dissipation of S-metolachlor followed an exponential decline. The DT50 of S-metolachlor on mineral soils ranged from 12 to 24 d. The short persistence of S-metolachlor on mineral soils was likely attributed to low organic matter content with limited adsorptive capability. The results indicate that organic matter content and soil moisture are important for persistence of S-metolachlor on organic and mineral soils used for sugarcane production in Florida.


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: D. Calvin Odero, University of Florida, Everglades Research and Education Center, 3200 E Palm Beach Road, Belle Glade, FL33430. Email:


Hide All

Associate Editor: Cammy Willett; University of Arkansas



Hide All
Accinelli, C, Dinelli, G, Vicari, A, Catizone, P (2001) Atrazine and metolachlor degradation in subsoils. Biol Fertil Soils 33:495500
Anonymous (2011) Dania Series. National Cooperative Soil Survey U.S.A. Accessed: October 28, 2019
Anonymous (2018a) Holopaw Series. National Cooperative Soil Survey U.S.A. Accessed: October 28, 2019
Anonymous (2018b) Lumax® EZ herbicide product label. Greensboro, NC: Syngenta United States. 25 p. Accessed: March 29, 2019
Anonymous (2019) SFWMD 30-Year Historical Average Rainfall (1989–2018). South Florida Water Management District. Accessed: July 22, 2019
Barriuso, E, Houot, S (1996) Rapid mineralization of the s-triazine ring of atrazine in soils in relation to soil management. Soil Biol Biochem 28:13411348
Bouchard, DC, Lavy, TL, Marx, DB (1982) Fate of metribuzin, metolachlor, and fluometuron in soil. Weed Sci 30:629632
Braverman, MP, Lavy, TL, Barnes, CJ (1986) The degradation and bioactivity of metolachlor in the soil. Weed Sci 34:479484
Bryson, CT, DeFelice, MS (2009) Weeds of the South. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press. 395 p
Caracciolo, AB, Giuliano, G, Grenni, P, Guzzella, L, Pozzoni, F, Bottoni, P, Fava, L, Crobe, A, Orru, M, Funari, E (2005) Degradation and leaching of the herbicides metolachlor and diuron: a case study in an area of northern Italy. Environ Pollut 134:525534
Correia, NM, Perussi, FJ, Gomes, LJP (2012) S-metolachlor efficacy on the control of Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria horizontalis, and Panicum maximum in mechanically green harvested sugarcane. Planta Daninha 30:861870
Dinelli, G, Accinelli, C, Vicari, A, Catizone, P (2000) Comparison of persistence of atrazine and metolachlor under field and laboratory conditions. J Agric Food Chem 48:30373043
Elsayed, OF, Maillard, E, Vuilleumier, S, Imfeld, G (2014) Bacterial communities in batch and continuous-flow wetlands treating the herbicide S-metolachlor. Sci Total Environ 499:327335
Frank, R, Clegg, BS, Patni, NK (1991) Dissipation of cyanazine and metolachlor on a clay loam soil, Ontario, Canada, 1987–1990. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 21:253262
Ghiorse, WC, Wilson, JT (1988) Microbial ecology of the terrestrial surface. Pages 107112in Laskin, AI, ed. Advances in Applied Microbiology. Volume 33. San Diego, CA: Academic Press
Gish, TJ, Prueger, JH, Kustas, WP, Daughtry, CST, McKee, LG, Russ, A, Hatfield, JL (2009) Soil moisture and metolachlor volatilization observations over three years. J Environ Qual 38:17851795
Harvey, RG (1987) Herbicide dissipation from soils with different herbicide use histories. Weed Sci 35:583589
Huang, J, Cui, Y, Zhou, L, Miao, H, Feng, L (2017) Degradation of S-metolachlor and its effects on soil enzymes and microbial communities in vegetable field soil. J Residuals Sci Tech 14:245254
Kotoula-Syka, E, Htzios, KK, Berry, DF, Wilson, HP (1997) Degradation of acetanilide herbicides in history and nonhistory soils from eastern Virginia. Weed Technol 11:403409
Kozak, J (1983) Adsorption of prometryn and metolachlor by selected soil organic matter fractions. Soil Sci 136:94101
LeBaron, HM, McFarland, JE, Simoneaux, BJ, Ebert, E (1988) Metolachlor. Pages 335384in Kearney, PC, Kaufman, DD, eds. Herbicides: Chemistry, Degradation, and Mode of Action. Volume 3. New York: Marcel Dekker
Krause, A, Hancock, WG, Minard, RD, Freyer, AJ, Honeycutt, RC, LeBaron, HM, Paulson, DL, Liu, S-Y, Bollag, J-M (1985) Microbial transformation of the herbicide metolachlor by a soil actinomycete. J Agric Food Chem 33:584589
Krutz, LJ, Shaner, DL, Weaver, MA, Webb, RMT, Zablotowicz, RM, Reddy, KN, Huang, Y, Thomson, SJ (2010) Agronomic and environmental implications of enhanced s-triazine degradation. Pest Manag Sci 66:461481
Liu, SY, Zhang, R, Bollag, JM (1988) Biodegradation of metolachlor in a soil perfusion of experiment. Biol Fertil Soils 5:276281
Liu, S-Y, Freyer, AJ, Bollag, J-M (1991) Microbial dechlorination of the herbicide metolachlor. J Agric Food Chem 39:631636
Long, YH, Li, RT, Wu, XM (2014) Degradation of S-metolachlor in soil as affected by environmental factors. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 14:189198
Martínez, L, Lechón, Y, Sánchez-Brunete, C, Tadeo, JL (1997) Persistence of metolachlor, atrazine and deethylatrazine in soils and its simulation by deterministic models. Toxicol Environ Chem 54:219232
McCarty, LB, Hall, DW (2018) Common Weeds and Wild Flowers: Gardens, Roadsides, Pastures, Fields, Golf Courses, Sports Fields, Lawns, Crops, Ornamentals, Sod. Clemson, SC: Clemson University Public Service Publishing. 472 p
McCray, JM, Morgan, KT, Baucum, L, Ji, S (2014) Sugarcane yield response to nitrogen on sand soils. Agron J 106:14611469
McGahen, LL, Tiedje, (1978) Metabolism of two new acylanilide herbicides, Antor herbicide (H-22234) and Dual (metolachlor) by the soil fungus Chaetomium globosum. J Agric Food Chem 26:414419
Miller, JL, Wollum, AG, Weber, JB (1997) Degradation of carbon-14-atrazine and carbon-14 metolachlor in soil from four depths. J Environ Qual 26:633638
Mueller, TC, Senseman, SA (2015) Methods related to herbicide dissipation or degradation under field or laboratory conditions. Weed Sci 63(SP1), 133139
Mueller, TC, Shaw, DR, Witt, WW (1999) Relative dissipation of acetochlor, alachlor, metolachlor, and SAN 582 from three surface soils. Weed Technol 13:341346
Obrigawitch, T, Hons, FM, Abernathy, JR, Gipson, JR (1981) Adsorption, desorption, and mobility of metolachlor in soils. Weed Sci 29:332336
Odero, DC, Duchrow, M, Havranek, N (2016) Critical timing of fall panicum (Panicum dichotomiflorum) removal in sugarcane. Weed Technol 30:1320
Odero, DC, Dusky, JA (2014) Weed Management in Sugarcane. EDIS Publication SS-AGR-09. Accessed: March 20, 2017
Odero, DC, Shaner, DL (2014a) Dissipation of pendimethalin in organic soils in Florida. Weed Technol 28:8288
Odero, DC, Shaner, DL (2014b) Field dissipation of atrazine and metribuzin in organic soils in Florida. Weed Technol 28:578586
Peter, CJ, Weber, JB (1985) Adsorption, mobility and efficacy of alachlor and metolachlor as influenced by soil properties. Weed Sci 33:874881
R Core Team (2017) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
Rice, PJ, Anderson, TA, Coats, JR (2002) Degradation and persistence of metolachlor in soil: effects of concentration, soil moisture, soil depth, and sterilization. Environ Toxicol Chem 21:26402648
Ritz, C, Streibig, JC (2005) Bioassay analysis using R. J Stat Softw 12:122
Rivard, L (2003) Environmental Fate of Metolachlor. Accessed: October 28, 2019
Ross, P, Fillols, E (2017) Weed Management in Sugarcane Manual. Indooroopilly, QLD: Sugar Research Australia. 148 p. Management_ in_Sugarcane_Manual.pdf. Accessed: August 9, 2018
Sahid, IB, Wei, CC (1993) Degradation of two acetanilide herbicides in a tropical soil. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 50:2428
Sanyal, D, Kulshrestha, G (1999) Effects of repeated metolachlor applications on its persistence in field soil and degradation kinetics in mixed microbial cultures. Biol Fertil Soils 30:124131
Sanyal, D, Kulshrestha, G (2002) Metabolism of metolachlor by fungal cultures. J Agric Food Chem 50:499505
Saxena, A, Zhang, R, Bollag, J (1987) Microorganisms capable of metabolizing the herbicide metolachlor. Appl Environ Microbiol 53:390396
Schulte, EE, Hopkins, BG (1996) Estimation of organic matter by weight loss-on-ignition. Pages 2131in Magdoff, FR, Tabatabai, Hanlon ER Jr, eds. Soil Organic Matter: Analysis and Interpretation. Madison, WI: Soil Science Society of America
Schueneman, TJ, Sanchez, CA (1994) Vegetable production in the EAA. Pages 238277in Bottcher, AB, Izuno, FT, eds. Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA): Water, Soil, Crop, and Environmental Management. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida
Scott, HD, Phillips, RE (1972) Diffusion of selected herbicides in soil. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 36:714719
Shaner, DL (2014) Herbicide Handbook. 10th ed. Lawrence, KS: Weed Science Society of America. 513 p
Shaner, DL, Brunk, G, Belles, D, Westra, P, Nissen, S (2006) Soil dissipation and biological activity of metolachlor and S-metolachlor in five soils. Pest Manag Sci 62:617623
Shaner, DL, Henry, B (2007) Field history and dissipation of atrazine and metolachlor in Colorado. J Environ Qual 36:128134
Shaner, DL, Krutz, LJ, Henry, WB, Hanson, BD, Poteet, MD, Rainbolt, CR (2010) Sugarcane soils exhibit enhanced atrazine degradation and cross adaptation to other s-triazines. J Am Soc Sugar Cane Technol 30:110
Snyder, GH, Burdine, HW, Crockett, JR, Gascho, GJ, Harrison, DS, Kidder, G, Mishoe, JW (1978) Water Table Management for Organic Soil Conservation and Crop Production in the Florida Everglades. Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Bulletin 801. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 35 p
Tate, RL III (1979) Microbial activity in organic soils as affected by soil depth and crop. Appl Environ Microbiol 37:10851090
[USDA-NASS] U.S. Department of Agriculture–National Agricultural Statistics Service (2018) Crop Production. Accessed: July 18, 2018
VanWeelden, M, Swanson, S, Davidson, W, Rice, R (2018) Sugarcane variety census. Florida 2017. Sugar J, July:10–19
Walker, A, Brown, PA (1985) The relative persistence in soil of five acetanilide herbicides. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 34:143149
Weber, JB, McKinnon, EJ, Swain, LR (2003) Sorption and mobility of 14C-labeled imazaquin and metolachlor in four soils as influenced by soil properties. J Agric Food Chem 51:57525759
Weber, JB, Peter, CJ (1982) Adsorption, bioactivity, and evaluation of soil tests for alachlor, acetochlor, and metolachlor. Weed Sci 30:1420
Westra, EP, Shaner, DL, Westra, PH, Chapman, PL (2014) Dissipation and leaching of pyroxasulfone and S-metolachlor. Weed Technol 28:7281
Wright, AL, Hanlon, EA (2009) Measuring Organic Matter in Everglades Wetlands and the Everglades Agricultural Area. EDIS Publication SL 285. Accessed: March 20, 2017
Wright, AL, Wang, Y, Reddy, KR (2008) Loss-on-ignition method to assess soil organic carbon in calcareous Everglades wetlands. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 39:30743083
Wu, X, Long, Y, Li, J, Li, R, Liu, R, Li, M (2015) Degradation of metolachlor in tobacco field soil. Soil Sediment Contam 24:398410
Zimdahl, RL, Clark, SK (1982) Degradation of three acetanilide herbicides in soil. Weed Sci 30:545548
Zelazny, LW, Carlisle, VW (1974) Physical, chemical, elemental, and oxygen-containing functional group analysis of selected Florida Histosols. Pages 6378in Stelly, M, Dinauer, RC, eds. Histosols: Their Characteristics, Classification, and Use. Madison, WI: Soil Science Society of America


Field dissipation of S-metolachlor in organic and mineral soils used for sugarcane production in Florida

  • Jose V. Fernandez (a1), D. Calvin Odero (a2), Gregory E. MacDonald (a3), Jason A. Ferrell (a4), Brent A. Sellers (a5) and P. Christopher Wilson (a6)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed