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Evaluating Annual Bluegrass Herbicide Resistance Evolution in Golf Course Fairways

  • Robert B. Cross (a1), William C. Bridges (a2), Lambert B. McCarty (a1) and J. Scott McElroy (a3)


Annual bluegrass is one of the most diverse plant species in the world and is the most problematic winter annual weed in commercial turfgrass. Continuous application of the same herbicide mechanism of action for annual bluegrass control on golf courses has increased herbicide-resistant populations. The purpose of this research was to simulate six herbicide-use strategies to evaluate the risk of annual bluegrass resistance evolution to glyphosate. In a worst-case scenario of yearly glyphosate applications at dormancy, resistance evolved within 10 yr and was predicted to evolve in > 90% of populations by yr 20. When glyphosate was rotated on alternate years with a unique mechanism of action, resistance was delayed for 12 to 15 yr. Season-long control of annual bluegrass often requires multiple herbicide applications. Therefore, additional strategies were simulated in which glyphosate was applied at dormancy with combinations of PRE and/or POST herbicides at various timings. Resistance was most effectively delayed with a PRE application in late summer, a POST application in fall, and alternating glyphosate with a different POST option at dormancy. This delayed resistance by 25 yr and a 35% risk was predicted after 50 yr. Strategies utilizing three annual herbicide applications with unique mechanisms of action were more effective for controlling population growth compared to other strategies. Resistance was predicted to evolve within 35 yr for each of the strategies simulated. However, these results indicate annual bluegrass herbicide resistance can be managed by using an integrated herbicide program, rotating unique mechanisms of action as frequently as possible.

Poa annua es una de las especies de plantas más diversas del mundo y es la maleza de invierno más problemática en los céspedes comerciales. La aplicación continua del mismo mecanismo de acción de herbicidas para el control de P. annua en campos de golf ha incrementado las poblaciones resistentes a herbicidas. El propósito de esta investigación fue simular seis estrategias de uso de herbicidas para evaluar el riesgo de evolución de resistencia a glyphosate para P. annua. En el peor de los escenarios, usando aplicaciones de glyphosate anualmente durante el período de latencia del césped, la resistencia evolucionó en 10 años y se predijo que se daría en > 90% de las poblaciones dentro de 20 años. Cuando glyphosate se rotó en años alternos con un mecanismo de acción único, la resistencia se retrasó 12 a 15 años. El control de P. annua durante toda la temporada de crecimiento frecuentemente requirió múltiples aplicaciones de herbicidas. Así pues, se simularon estrategias adicionales en las cuales glyphosate fue aplicado durante la latencia con combinaciones de herbicidas PRE y/o POST en varios momentos. La resistencia fue retrasada en forma más efectiva con aplicaciones PRE tarde en el verano, una aplicación POST en el otoño, y alternando glyphosate con una opción POST diferente durante la latencia. Estas prácticas retrasaron la resistencia en 25 años y se predijo un 35% de riesgo después de 50 años. Estrategias utilizando tres aplicaciones de herbicidas anuales con mecanismos de acción únicos fueron más efectivas para el control del crecimiento de la población al compararse con otras estrategias. La evolución de resistencia se predijo dentro de 35 años para cada una de las estrategias simuladas. Sin embargo, estos resultados indican que P. annua con resistencia a herbicidas puede ser manejada al usar un programa integrado de herbicidas, rotando con mecanismos de acción únicos tan frecuentemente como sea posible.


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