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European Perspectives on the Adoption of Nonchemical Weed Management in Reduced-Tillage Systems for Arable Crops

  • Bo Melander (a1), Nicolas Munier-Jolain (a2), Raphaël Charles (a3), Judith Wirth (a3), Jürgen Schwarz (a4), Rommie van der Weide (a5), Ludovic Bonin (a6), Peter K. Jensen (a1) and Per Kudsk (a1)...

Abstract

Noninversion tillage with tine- or disc-based cultivations prior to crop establishment is the most common way of reducing tillage for arable cropping systems with small grain cereals, oilseed rape, and maize in Europe. However, new regulations on pesticide use might hinder further expansion of reduced-tillage systems. European agriculture is asked to become less dependent on pesticides and promote crop protection programs based on integrated pest management (IPM) principles. Conventional noninversion tillage systems rely entirely on the availability of glyphosate products, and herbicide consumption is mostly higher compared to plow-based cropping systems. Annual grass weeds and catchweed bedstraw often constitute the principal weed problems in noninversion tillage systems, and crop rotations concurrently have very high proportions of winter cereals. There is a need to redesign cropping systems to allow for more diversification of the crop rotations to combat these weed problems with less herbicide input. Cover crops, stubble management strategies, and tactics that strengthen crop growth relative to weed growth are also seen as important components in future IPM systems, but their impact in noninversion tillage systems needs validation. Direct mechanical weed control methods based on rotating weeding devices such as rotary hoes could become useful in reduced-tillage systems where more crop residues and less workable soils are more prevalent, but further development is needed for effective application. Owing to the frequent use of glyphosate in reduced-tillage systems, perennial weeds are not particularly problematic. However, results from organic cropping systems clearly reveal that desisting from glyphosate use inevitably leads to more problems with perennials, which need to be addressed in future research.

El cultivar sin inversión del suelo usando discos o picos, antes del establecimiento del cultivo, es la forma más común de reducir la labranza en sistemas de cultivos arables que incluyen cereales, colza y maíz en Europa. Sin embargo, nuevas regulaciones sobre el uso de plaguicidas podrían afectar la expansión de los sistemas de labranza reducida. La agricultura europea ha sido llamada a ser menos dependiente de los plaguicidas y a promover programas de protección de cultivos basados en los principios de manejo integrado de plagas (IPM). Los sistemas de labranza convencional sin inversión del suelo dependen totalmente de la disponibilidad de productos con glyphosate, y el consumo de herbicidas es mayoritariamente superior al compararse con sistemas de cultivo basados en el uso de arado. Malezas como zacates anuales y Galium aparine frecuentemente constituyen el principal problema de malezas en sistemas de labranza sin inversión del suelo y rotaciones de cultivos que además tienen proporciones muy altas de cereales de invierno. Existe la necesidad de rediseñar los sistemas de cultivos para permitir una mayor diversificación de las rotaciones de cultivos para así combatir estos problemas de malezas con un uso menor de herbicidas. Cultivos de cobertura, sistemas de manejo con residuos de cultivos, y tácticas que refuercen el crecimiento del cultivo en relación con el crecimiento de las malezas son también vistos como componentes importantes en los sistema IPM futuros, pero su impacto en los sistemas de labranza sin inversión del suelo necesita validación. Los métodos de control mecánico de malezas directo basados en implementos rotativos de deshierba, tales como azadones rotativos, han sido útiles en sistemas de labranza reducida donde la presencia de más residuos de cultivos y suelos menos trabajables son prevalentes, pero un mayor desarrollo de estos métodos es necesario para su aplicación efectiva. Debido al uso frecuente de glyphosate en sistemas de labranza reducida, las malezas perennes no son particularmente problemáticas. Sin embargo, resultados en sistemas de producción orgánicos han revelado claramente que el desistir del uso de glyphosate lleva inevitablemente a más problemas con malezas perennes, lo que necesita ser incluido en investigaciones futuras.

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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivatives licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits noncommercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is unaltered and is properly cited.

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Corresponding author's E-mail: bo.melander@agrsci.dk

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European Perspectives on the Adoption of Nonchemical Weed Management in Reduced-Tillage Systems for Arable Crops

  • Bo Melander (a1), Nicolas Munier-Jolain (a2), Raphaël Charles (a3), Judith Wirth (a3), Jürgen Schwarz (a4), Rommie van der Weide (a5), Ludovic Bonin (a6), Peter K. Jensen (a1) and Per Kudsk (a1)...

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