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Does Timing Influence the Utility of Reduced Atrazine Rates for Proactive Resistance Management?

  • Ross A. Recker (a1), Joseph G. Lauer (a1), David E. Stoltenberg (a1), Paul D. Mitchell (a2) and Vince M. Davis (a1)...

Abstract

Atrazine is an important herbicide for broadleaf weed control in corn. Use rates have declined in many corn production systems due to environmental concerns and the availability of other effective herbicides, especially glyphosate in glyphosate-resistant hybrids. However, using multiple effective herbicide modes of action is ever more important because occurrence of herbicide-resistant weeds is increasing. An experiment to compare application timings of reduced rates of atrazine to benefit resistance management in broadleaf weeds while protecting corn yield was conducted in Wisconsin across four site-years in 2012 and 2013. Herbicide treatments consisted of five atrazine rate and timing combinations and three POST base herbicides: glyphosate, glufosinate, and tembotrione. Metolachlor was applied PRE at 2.1 kg ai ha−1 for grass control in all treatments. A linear regression model estimated that atrazine rates ≥ 1.0 kg ai ha−1 applied PRE would prevent exposure of common lambsquarters plants to POST herbicides, but giant ragweed and velvetleaf exposure was not influenced by timing. Corn yield was also not influenced by atrazine rate and timing combinations at the α = 0.05 level; however, at P = 0.06, corn yield was greater for atrazine applied PRE at 1.1 kg ha−1 than for atrazine applied PRE at 0.5 kg ha−1, POST at 1.1 kg ha−1, or not at all. In summary, higher rates of atrazine applied PRE may improve yield, as reported by others, but this study concludes reduced rates of atrazine (i.e., ≤ 1.1 kg ha−1) applied to corn in a POST tank mixture combination provided more consistent control of giant ragweed, velvetleaf, and common lambsquarters compared with atrazine applied PRE. This information should help direct atrazine application timing applied POST when applied at low rates to improve proactive herbicide resistance management.

Atrazine es un herbicida importante para el control de malezas de hoja ancha en maíz. Las dosis han sido reducidas en muchos sistemas de producción de maíz debido a preocupaciones sobre su impacto en el ambiente y la disponibilidad de otros herbicidas efectivos, especialmente glyphosate en híbridos de maíz con resistencia a glyphosate. Sin embargo, el uso de herbicidas efectivos con múltiples modos de acción es aún más importante debido al incremento en la aparición de malezas resistentes a herbicidas. En 2012 y 2013, se realizó un experimento en Wisconsin a lo largo de cuatro sitios-años para comparar momentos de aplicación de atrazine a dosis reducidas para beneficiar el manejo de resistencia en malezas de hoja ancha y a la vez proteger el rendimiento del maíz. Los tratamientos de herbicidas consistieron en cinco combinaciones de dosis de atrazine y de momentos de aplicación y tres herbicidas POST: glyphosate, glufosinate, y tembotrione. Metolachlor fue aplicado PRE a 2.1 kg ai ha−1 para el control de gramíneas en todos los tratamientos. Un modelo de regresión lineal estimó que dosis de atrazine ≥ 1.0 kg ai ha−1 aplicadas PRE prevendrían la exposición de Chenopodium album a los herbicidas POST, pero Ambrosia trifida y Abutilon theophrasti no fueron influenciadas por el momento de aplicación. El rendimiento del maíz no fue influenciado por las combinaciones de dosis de atrazine y momentos de aplicación al nivel α = 0.05. Sin embargo, a un nivel de P = 0.06, el rendimiento del maíz fue mayor para atrazine PRE a 1.1 kg ha−1 que para atrazine PRE a 0.5 kg ha−1, POST a 1.1 kg ha−1, o sin atrazine del todo. En resumen, las dosis más altas de atrazine aplicado PRE podrían mejorar el rendimiento, como otros han reportado, pero este estudio concluye que las dosis reducidas de atrazine (i.e., ≤ 1.1. kg ha−1) aplicadas a maíz en una combinación de mezcla en tanque POST brinda un control más consistente de A. trifida, A. theophrasti, y C. álbum, al compararse con atrazine aplicado PRE. Esta información debería ayudar a dirigir el momento de aplicación de atrazine aplicado POST cuando se usan dosis bajas para mejorar el manejo proactivo de resistencia a herbicidas.

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Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail: vince.davis@basf.com.

References

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