Skip to main content Accessibility help

Determining Physiological Maturation of Jointed Goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host) Caryopses

  • Michael P. Quinn (a1), Don W. Morishita (a1) and William J. Price (a2)


Information on jointed goatgrass caryopsis development is currently lacking in published literature. It is hoped that through a better understanding of jointed goatgrass caryopsis ontogeny more effective weed-management strategies will be developed. Greenhouse experiments were initiated in fall 2002 and 2003 and completed the following spring seasons. Jointed goatgrass plants were started from spikelets, vernalized for 8 wk at 4 C, and grown in a greenhouse. Treatments were the number of days after anthesis (DAA) that a spike was allowed to remain on the plant before harvesting and ranged from 2 to 34 DAA, in increments of 1 (2002) or 2 (2003) d. Individual spikes were divided at harvest into three sections: top, middle, and bottom, disarticulated from the rachis, placed into a germinator, and germination recorded each day. Goatgrass spikelets germinated as early as 2 DAA, although spikelets harvested <7 DAA had <3% germination for all spike sections and were extremely variable, especially for the middle and bottom sections. Time to germination was similar for all sections of the spike. Maximum average germination of the top section was 72% compared with 86% for the bottom and middle sections. Our data suggest that factors other than developmental rate (i.e., dormancy) may affect germination in sections of the spike. A second year of the experiment was conducted for validation. Model validation suggested that although trends were similar in both years, variation in germination response might be too great for accurate, predictive model construction. The early germination shown in this research demonstrates that control measures must be implemented earlier than previously prescribed to prevent jointed goatgrass reproduction.


Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail:


Hide All
Anderson, R. L. 1993. Jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) ecology and interference in winter wheat. Weed Sci. 41:388393.
Ball, D. A., Young, F. L., and Ogg, A. G. Jr. 1999. Selective control of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) with imazamox in herbicide resistant wheat. Weed Technol. 13:7782.
Barton, L. V. 1965. Seed dormancy: general survey of dormancy types in seeds, and dormancy imposed by external agents. Encycl. Plant Physiol. 15:699745.
Bewley, J. D. and Black, M. 1982. Physiology and biochemistry of seeds in relation to germination. Viability, dormancy, and environmental control. New York Springer-Verlag. 61125.
Burnside, O. C., Wilson, R. G., Weisberg, S., and Hubbard, K. G. 1996. Seed longevity of 41 weed species buried 17 years in eastern and western Nebraska. Weed Sci. 44:7486.
Carpenter, T. L. and Thill, D. C. 1992. Jointed goatgrass seed dormancy varies by region on the spike. Proc. West. Soc. Weed Sci. 45:120.
Chanda, S. V., Narmada, K., and Singh, Y. D. 1999. Dry matter accumulation and associated changes in biochemical parameters during wheat grain development. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 182:153159.
Datta, S. C., Evenari, M., and Gutterman, Y. 1970. The heteroblasty of Aegilops ovata L. Isr. J. Bot. 19:463483.
Donald, W. W. 1979. Greenhouse screening trials of herbicide efficacy on jointed goatgrass and ‘Centurk’ winter wheat. West. Soc. Weed Sci. Res. Prog. Rep. 312317.
Donald, W. W. 1984. Vernalization requirements for flowering of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica). Weed Sci. 32:631637.
Donald, W. W. 1994. A method of validating the tetrazolium assay for viability of dormant jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) seed. Weed Sci. 42:502508.
Donald, W. W. and Ogg, A. G. Jr. 1991. Biology and control of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica): a review. Weed Technol. 5:317.
Donald, W. W. and Zimdahl, R. H. 1987. Persistence, germinability, and distribution of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) seed in the soil. Weed Sci. 35:149154.
Fandrich, L. and Mallory-Smith, C. A. 2003. Spikelet structures as mechanisms for jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) dormancy. Proc. West. Soc. Weed Sci. 55:59.
Fandrich, L. and Mallory-Smith, C. A. 2005. Temperature effects on jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cyclindrica) seed germination. Weed Sci. 53:594599.
Fleming, G. F., Young, F. L., and Ogg, A. G. Jr. 1988. Competitive relationships among winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica), and downy brome (Bromus tectorum). Weed Sci. 36:479486.
Gavrilova, V. A. 1983. Flowering and pollination of species of the genus Aegilops L. Prikl. Bot. Genet. Sel. 74:3642. [In Russian].
Gleichsner, J. A., Rydrych, D. J., and Appleby, A. P. 1987. Germination and growth characteristics of five jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) accessions. Proc. West. Soc. Weed Sci. 40:117118.
Hanson, D. E., Ball, D. A., and Mallory-Smith, C. A. 2002. Herbicide resistance in jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica): simulated responses to agronomic practices. Weed Technol. 16:156163.
Lang, A. 1965. Effects of some internal and external conditions on seed germination. Encycl. Plant Physiol. 15:848893.
Mallory-Smith, C. A. and Hylsop, G. R. 1999. Management of herbicide resistant wheat to prevent or delay the occurrence of herbicide-resistant jointed goatgrass. Proc. West. Soc. Weed Sci. 52:174175.
del Molino, I. M. Martin, Rojo, B., Martinez-Carrasco, R., and Perez, P. 1990. Effects of alterations in the source sink ratio on various dates after anthesis on the amino acid composition of wheat grains. J. Sci. Food Agric. 52:467476.
Morrison, L. A., Riera-Lizarazu, O., Cremieux, L., and Mallory-Smith, C. A. 2002. Jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host) × wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) hybrids: hybridization dynamics in Oregon wheat fields. Crop Sci. 42:18631872.
Nielson, O. K., Ritz, C., and Streibig, J. C. 2004. Nonlinear mixed-model regression to analyze herbicide dose-response relationships. Weed Technol. 18:3037.
Ogg, A. J. Jr and Seefeldt, S. S. 1999. Characterizing traits that enhance the competitiveness of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) against jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica). Weed Sci. 47:7480.
Rainbolt, C. R., Thill, D. C., Yenish, J. P., and Ball, D. A. 2004. Herbicide resistant grass weed development in imidazolinone-resistant wheat: weed biology and herbicide rotation. Weed Technol. 18:860868.
Rydrych, D. J. 1983. Jointed Goatgrass—A New Weed Invader. Pendleton, OR Columbia Basin Agriculture Research Center Oregon State University Special Report 680. 1819.
Salisbury, E. J. 1942. The Reproductive Capacity of Plants. London Bell and Sons. 336452.
[SAS] Statistical Analysis System 2001. SAS User's Guide. Version 8.2. Carey, NC Statistical Analysis Systems Institute. 1686.
Seefeldt, S. S., Zemetra, R. S., Young, F. L., and Jones, S. S. 1998. Production of herbicide-resistant jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host) × wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) hybrids in the field by natural hybridization. Weed Sci. 46:632634.
Smyth, G. K. 2003. Pearson's goodness of fit statistic as a score test statistic. in Goldstein, D.R., ed. Science and Statistics: A Festschrift for Terry Speed. IMS Lecture Notes—Monograph Series, Volume 40. Hayward, CA Institute of Mathematical Statistics.
Snee, R. D. 1977. Validation of regression models: methods and examples. Technometrics 19:415428.
Souza, E. 2003. Release notice for Idaho 587 soft white winter wheat. University of Idaho: Web page: Accessed September 12, 2006.
Waisel, Y. and Adler, Y. 1959. Germination behavior of Aegilops kotschyi Boiss. Can. J. Bot. 37:741742.
Wicks, G., Anderson, R., White, T., Stahlman, P., and Morishita, D. 2005. Jointed goatgrass control tactics. Pullman, WA Washington State University College of Agricultural, Human, and Natural Resource Sciences, Extension Publication EB1935. 8.
Wurzburger, J. 1974. The role of gibberellin and the hulls in the control of germination in Aegilops kotschyi caryopses. Can. J. Bot. 52:15971601.
Wurzburger, J. and Koller, D. 1973. Onset of seed dormancy in Aegilops kotschyi Boiss. and it's experimental modification. New Phytol. 72:10571061.
Wurzburger, J. and Lesham, Y. 1969. Physiological action of the germination inhibitor in the husk of Aegilops kotschyi Boiss. New Phytol. 68:337341.
Yang, Y., Zhang, J., Wang, Z., Zhu, Q., and Liu, L. 2001. Water deficit-induced senescence and its relationship to the remobilization of pre-stored carbon in wheat during grain filling. Agron. J. 93:196206.
Zemetra, R. S., Hansen, J., and Mallory-Smith, C. A. 1998. Potential for gene transfer between wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica). Weed Sci. 46:313317.
Zohary, M. 1937. Die verbreitungsokologischen verhaltnisse der pflanzen Palaestinas. Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 56:1155. [In German].


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Determining Physiological Maturation of Jointed Goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host) Caryopses

  • Michael P. Quinn (a1), Don W. Morishita (a1) and William J. Price (a2)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.