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Influence of Planting Depth and Application Timing on S-metolachlor Injury in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 February 2017

Benjamin P. Sperry
Affiliation:
Agronomy Department, University of Florida, P.O. Box 110500, Gainesville, FL 32611
Jason A. Ferrell
Affiliation:
Agronomy Department, University of Florida, P.O. Box 110500, Gainesville, FL 32611
Ramon G. Leon
Affiliation:
West Florida Research and Education Center and Agronomy Department, University of Florida, Jay, FL 32565
Diane L. Rowland
Affiliation:
Agronomy Department, University of Florida, P.O. Box 110500, Gainesville, FL 32611
Michael J. Mulvaney
Affiliation:
West Florida Research and Education Center and Agronomy Department, University of Florida, Jay, FL 32565
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Two experiments were conducted in 2015 at multiple locations in Florida to evaluate the effects of planting depth and application timing on S-metolachlor injury in sesame. In both studies, sesame responded negatively to increases in S-metolachlor rate. Altering sesame planting depth did not provide increased safety to PRE S-metolachlor applications. Sesame establishment declined with increased planting depth, likely because of the physical inability of the small seed to emerge from the 3.8-cm depth. Delaying applications of S-metolachlor by 3 or 6 d after planting (DAP) consistently improved sesame establishment. Applications 3 and 6 DAP resulted in 89 to 92% seedling emergence at 2 wk after planting (WAP), relative to 55 to 63% emergence when S-metolachlor was applied the day of planting (0 DAP) or 3 days before (−3 DAP), respectively. Applications 3 DAP resulted in 21 and 2% plant stunting when evaluated 3 and 6 WAP, respectively, whereas all other timings caused 25 to 51% stunting. Yield was reduced 22 and 33% by the −3 DAP and 0 DAP application timings, respectively, whereas no reduction in yield was observed by the delayed application timings. Therefore, delaying applications of S-metolachlor by 3 to 6 days will likely result in improved sesame seedling establishment and total seed yield.

En 2015, se realizaron dos experimentos en varias localidades en Florida para evaluar los efectos de la profundidad de siembra y el momento de aplicación de S-metolachlor sobre el daño causado al ajonjolí. En ambos estudios, el ajonjolí respondió negativamente a incrementos en la dosis de S-metolachlor. El alterar la profundidad de siembra del ajonjolí no aumentó la seguridad con respecto a las aplicaciones PRE de S-metolachlor. El establecimiento del ajonjolí disminuyó al aumentar la profundidad, probablemente debido a la inhabilidad física de la semilla pequeña de emerger desde 3.8 cm de profundidad. El retrasar las aplicaciones de S-metolachlor 3 ó 6 d después de la siembra (DAP) consistentemente mejoró el establecimiento del ajonjolí. Aplicaciones 3 ó 6 DAP resultaron en 89 a 92% de emergencia de plántulas a 2 semanas después de la siembra (WAP), en comparación con 63 y 55% de emergencia cuando S-metolachlor fue aplicado el día de la siembra (0 DAP) o 3 días antes (−3 DAP), respectivamente. Las aplicaciones 3 DAP resultaron en 21 y 2% de reducción en altura de plantas cuando se evaluó 3 y 6 WAP, respectivamente. Mientras que todos los otros momentos de aplicación causaron 25 a 51% de reducción en altura de planta. El rendimiento se redujo 22 y 33% con aplicaciones realizadas −3 DAP y 0 DAP, respectivamente. Sin embargo, no se observaron reducciones en el rendimiento con los momentos de aplicación realizados después de la siembra. De esta manera, el retrasar las aplicaciones de S-metolachlor de 3 a 6 días resultará en un mejor establecimiento de plántulas y rendimiento total de semilla de ajonjolí.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Weed Science Society of America 

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Footnotes

Associate Editor for this paper: Lawrence Steckel, University of Tennessee.

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Influence of Planting Depth and Application Timing on S-metolachlor Injury in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)
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