Field surveys were conducted during 1978 and 1979 to determine the abundance and distribution of weeds in fields seeded to barley, oats, spring wheat, and mixtures of barley and oats in various proportions in the province of Prince Edward Island. Using a stratified random sampling procedure, weeds were counted in 536 fields during the 2-yr survey period. The weed flora had a large number of species that occurred at high densities, probably due to the limited herbicide use on Prince Edward Island. The average total number of species (64), number of species per field (20), and weed density (253 plants/m2) were similar among the four crop types and the five Extension Districts of the province. Only 49 of the 77 species encountered during the survey were found in 5% or more of the fields. Low cudweed, corn spurry, and common lambsquarters were the most abundant species, occurring in more than 80% of the fields at a mean density higher than 33.4 plants/m2. Red sorrel, smartweed, common hempnettle, broadleaf plantain, and quackgrass were also found in 80% or more of the fields, but at a mean density from 14.4 to 16.5 plants/m2. The perennials accounted for 51% of the commonly occurring species, annual and biennial broadleaf species accounted for 43%, and annual grasses were a minor group with only 6% of the species.