Leaf tissue and leaf-tissue extracts from annual wormwood and pure artemisinin were evaluated for their effects on plant growth when incorporated into sandy loam soil. Dried leaf tissue was successively extracted with methylene chloride (MeCl2), ethanol (EtOH), and water, and the extracts and residue were reduced to dryness and stored at −20 C. Leaf tissue was incorporated in soil at rates equivalent to 0, 0.37, 0.73, or 1.1% (w/w) based on soil dry weight. Peat moss treated with extracts or artemisinin was incorporated into soil at a rate equivalent to the 0.73% (w/w) treatment. Inhibition of growth was species-specific; estimated reduction of dry weight by 0.73% (w/w) leaf tissue was 82, 49, 25, and 9% for redroot pigweed, common lambsquarters, soybean, and corn, respectively. The effects of the MeCl2 extract, which contained all of the extractable artemisinin, on germination and growth of redroot pigweed were similar to that of leaf tissue. Annual wormwood leaf tissue and MeCl2-extract treatments were the only treatments that resulted in a reduction in seedling survival. Artemisinin at levels equivalent to that contained in the MeCl2 extract and leaf-tissue treatments had significantly less effect on seedling survival, germination, and growth of redroot pigweed than the MeCl2 extract. Furthermore, the aqueous extract, which did not contain artemisinin, and the extract residue had activities similar to that of the artemisinin treatment. Thus, the allelopathic effects of annual wormwood can not be attributed to artemisinin alone.