Field experiments were conducted at Fayetteville, AR, in 1997, 1998, and 1999 to evaluate the degree of interspecific interference between drill-seeded, glyphosate-resistant soybean and hemp sesbania as influenced by soybean population, hemp sesbania density, and a single glyphosate application. Soybean was planted at 247,000, 430,000, and 618,000 seed ha−1 with early-season emergence of 217,000, 371,000, and 521,000 plants ha−1. Hemp sesbania densities were 0, 4, 10, and 16 plants m−2 in combination with 0 and 1.12 kg ai ha−1 glyphosate applied at the V4 to V6 soybean growth stage. Untreated hemp sesbania produced a maximum of 49 million seed ha−1 with 217,000 soybean ha−1, whereas seed production of glyphosate-treated hemp sesbania ranged from 2.8 to 0.6 million seed ha−1 with 217,000 and 521,000 soybean ha−1, respectively. Soybean seed yield was reduced 43% by 16 untreated hemp sesbania m−2, while glyphosate-treated hemp sesbania did not reduce seed yield. Averaged over all untreated hemp sesbania densities, soybean yield loss was reduced from 44 to 22% by increasing the soybean population from 217,000 to 521,000 plants ha−1. Because of the absence of soybean yield loss at 521,000 soybean ha−1, this density appears beneficial when using a single application of glyphosate to provide season-long weed control. However, a single glyphosate application in combination with a high soybean density did not completely prevent hemp sesbania seed production, and the seeding rate required to achieve a stand of 521,000 plants ha−1 would not be affordable; thus, alternate management methods targeting hemp sesbania must be employed to prevent an increase in the number of seed in the soil seedbank and to prevent a potential shift in the weed spectrum.