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Planning history in Japan

  • Shun-Ichi Watanabe (a1)

Extract

The planning system which dominates most of the comtemporary world is of European and American origin. It has come out of the particular socio-historical background of these Western countries and has naturally had some implicit assumptions regarding the concepts, purposes and ideology of planning. This system has been exported to, and often imposed upon, countries with different social conditions where those assumptions are not necessarily valid. As a result, in many developing countries, planning is considered ineffective, and planners become frustrated.

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This paper is an expansion of: Watanabe, Shun-ichi, ‘Planning History in Japan’, unpublished paper presented at the American Historical Association, San Francisco, 12, 1978.

1 To the writer's knowledge, professors teaching planning history are as follows: Prof. H. Kawakami (Dept of Urban Engineering, Tokyo University), Prof. S. Ishihara (Dept of Social Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology), Prof. Y. Ishida (Dept of Architecture, Tokyo Toritsu University), Prof. M. Tajima (Dept of Social Engineering, Tsukuba University).

2 Meiji, Taisho, Showa represent three successive emperors of modern Japan, the present Showa era starting in 1926.

3 Hall, John W., ‘The Castle Town and Japan's modern urbanization’, in Hall, John W. and Jansen, Marius B. (eds), Studies in the Institutional History of Early Japan (Princeton, N.J., 1968), 169–88.

4 Urban History Newsletter (Group in Comparative Urban History, July 1975). The group is represented by Professor K. Ugawa (Faculty of Economics, St Paul's (Rikkyō) University).

5 Kenkyū-kai, Toshi Keikaku-shi, ‘Nihon Kindai Toshi Keikaku-shi Kenkyū no Shup-patsu ni Mukete’, Tochi Jūtaku Mondai, liv (02 1979), 3746.

6 Ibid., ‘Nihon Kindai Toshi Keikaku-shi Kenkyū Bunken List’, Tochi Jūtaku Mondai, lv (March 1979), 64–76.

7 Gakkai, Nihon Kenchiku (ed.), Kindai Nihon Kenchiku-gaku Hattatsu-shi (Maruzen Shoten, 1972), Part 6 ‘Toshi Keikaku,’ 975–1114.

8 Nishiyama, Uzō and Yoshino, Shōji, ‘Toshi Keikaku Gakusetsu-shi Gaisetsu’, in Kawano, Yoshi-katsu (ed.), Toshi Jichi Gakusetsu-shi Gaisetsu: Tokyo Shisei Shūsa-kai 50 Shūnen Kinen Ronbun-shū (Tokyo Shisei Chosa-kai, 1973), 100–29.

9 Ishida, Yorifusa, ‘Chiiki Keikaku-Toshi Keikaku no Rekishi’, in Kenchiku-gaku Binran (Maruzen Shoten, 1979 as scheduled), I. ‘Planning’, part 5 ‘City planning’, chapter 1.

10 Kawakami, Hidemitsu, ‘Kindai Nihon Toshi Keikaku-shi Nenpyō’ (lecture material, 1978).

11 Watanabe, Shun-ichi, ‘Meiji-Taisho-ki Toshi Keikaku Bunken Shiryō Card’, unpublished paper.

12 Kenkyū-jo, Tokyo Shisei Chosa-kai Shuto (ed.), Tokyo ni Kansuru Bunken Mokuroku (Shuto Kenkyu-jo, 1964).

13 Isshiki, Fumihiko et al. (eds), Toshi-shi Toshi Keikaku-shi Kenkyū Bunken Mokuroku: Nihon-hen (Tokyo Toritsu Daigaku Toshi Kenkyū Iinkai, 1971).

14 Ishizuka, Hiromichi, ‘Meiji Shoki no Tokyo ni okeru Cholera-byō Taisaku to Minshū (1): Toshi Seisaku-shi Kenkyū Oboegaki’, Jinbun Gakuhō (Tokyo Toritsu University), cxiv (03 1976), 87106; and ‘Meiji-ki no Toshi Kenkyū: Tokyo ni Tsuite’, Iwanami Kōza Nihon Rekishi Geppō, xiv ((06 1976), 13; and ‘Dokusen Dankai no Toshi Mondai: 1900 Nendai Hajime no Tokyo o Taishō to shite’, Jinbun Gakuhō, cxviii (03 1977), 97116; and ‘“Fukoku Kyōhei-gata” Toshi Tokyo no Seiritsu: “Tokyo-shi” Kenkyū no Hōhō Kasetsu to shite’, Sōgō Toshi Kenkyū, vi (1977), 310.

15 Ibid., ‘Meiji-ki ni okeru Toshi Keikaku: Tokyo ni Tsuite,’ in Kenkyū-kai, Tokyo Toritsu Daigaku Toshi (ed.), Toshi Közö to Toshi Keikaku (Tokyo, 1968), 481–97.

16 Ibid., ‘19 Seiki ni okeru Tokyo Kaizō-ron to Chikko Mondai’, Toshi Kenkyu Hōkoku, xxii (1971), 33–59.

17 Ibid., ‘Tokyo Shiku Kaisei Jigyo-shi Kenkyū Josetsu: Jōsuido Kairyō Jigyō to Shikai-Bourgeoisie no Ugoki o Megutte’, Toshi Kenkyū Hōkoku, lv (1975), 23–35.

18 Ogura, Kuraji, ‘Tokyo Shiku Kaisei Jōrei Zengo (I), (II), (II), (Supplement)’, Toshi Mondai, lv, 6–9 (06-09 1964).

19 Kawakami, Hidemitsu, ‘Tokyo City Improvement Program, 1884–1918’, unpublished paper presented at the First International Conference on the History of Urban and Regional Planning, London, 09 1977.

20 Fujimori, Terunobu, ‘Ende-Boeckmann ni yoru Kanchō Shūchū Keikaku no Kenkyū (1)’, Nihon Kenehiku Gakkai Ronbun Hōkoku-shū, cclxxi (09 1978).

21 Watanabe, Shun-ichi, ‘Toshi Keikaku-shi Kenkyu e no Izanai (An Invitation to the Research on Planning History)’, Tochi Jutaku Mondai, liii (01 1979), 3543.

22 Watanabe, Shun-ichi, America Toshi Keikaku to Komyniti Rinen (American Urban Planning and the Community Ideal) (Tokyo: Gihōdō, 1977).

23 Takagi, Shōsaku, ‘Toshi Keikaku-hō’, in Nihon Kindai-hō Hattatsu-shi, vol. X (Keisō Shobō, 1960).

24 Fukuoka, Shunji, ‘Taishō-kiino Toshi Seisaku: Jūtaku Toshi Keikaku Kōso no Tenkai (1)–(3)’, Tokyo Toritsu Daigaku Hōgakkai Zasshi, xi, 2 (03 1971), 243–97; xii, 1 (October 1971), 219–72; xiii, 1 (October 1972), 1–81.

25 Akagi, Suruki, ‘Toshi Keikaku no Keikaku-sei’, in Toshi Kōzō to Toshi Keikaku, 499566.

26 Beard, Charles A., The Administration and Politics of Tokyo: A survey and opinions (New York, 1923).

27 Kawana, Kichiemon, ‘Shōwa Shoki no Toshi Keikaku’, in Toshi Kōzō to Toshi Keikaku, 567–76.

28 Sugai, Shirō, Kokudo Keikaku no Keika to Kadai (Taimeido, 1975).idem, (ed.), Shiryō Kokudo Keikaku (Taimeido, 1975).

29 Satō, Atsushi, Nihon no Chiiki Kaihatsu (Miraisha, 1965).

30 Koshizawa, Akira, Shokuminchi Manshū no Toshi Keikaku (Asia Kenkyu-jo, 1978).

31 Kawakami, Hidemitsu and Ishida, Yoshifusa, ‘Henbō suru Toshi: Tenki o Mukaeta Sengo Nihon no Toshi Keikaku’, in Kenchiku Nenkan, 1960 (Bijutsu Shuppansha, 1960).

32 Ishida, Yorifusa, ‘Daitoshi-Ken no Hattatsu to Keikaku: Sengo no Tokyo Daitoshi Keikaku no Hensen’, in Toshi Kōzō to Toshi Keikaku, 621–64.

33 Kobayashi, Shigetaka, Toshi Keisei to Tochi Shoyū: Toshi-chi Tochi Shoyū Jōkyō to Toshi Keisei ni kansuru JisshōtekivKenkyū (Ph.D. dissertation, Tokyo University, 1970).

34 Ibid., ‘Yōto Kisei no Hensen ni kansuru Bunken Chosa oyobi Jakkan no Kōsatsu’, in Kenchiku-butsu Yōto Jittai Chōsa Hōkoku-sho (Housing Bureau, Ministry of Construction, 1977), part 3, 119–66.

35 Ibid., ‘Waga-kuni ni okeru Yōto Kisei no Rekishi-teki Hensen ni kansuru Kenkyu: Yoto Kisei Keimō-ki o Chūshin ni’, Nihon Tochi Keikaku Gukkai Gakujutsu Kenkyū Happyō-Kai Ronbun-shū, xiii (1978), 289–94.

36 Horiuchi, Ryōichi, Toshi Keikaku to Yōto Chiikisei: Tokyo-to ni okeru Sono Enkaku to Tenbō (Nishida Shoten, 1978).

37 Ishida, Yorifusa, ‘Nihon ni okeru Shigaika Yokusei no Tame no Chiikisei no Hatten: 1945 Nen made’, in Toshi Keikaku to Kyojū Kankyō: Kawana Kichiemon Sensei Taikan. Kinen Ronbun-shū (Tokyo Toritsu Daigaku Toshi Keikaku Kenkyū-shitsu, 1978), 181202.

38 Iwami, Ryōtaro, Tochi Kukaku Seiri no Kenkyū: Kukakū Seiri no Mondaiten to Sono Kōzō (Jichitai Kenkyūsha, 1978).

39 Ishida, Yorifusaand Ikeda, Takayuki, ‘Kenchiku-sen Seido ni kansuru Kenkyū (1)’, Sōgō Toshi Kenkyū, vi (1979), 3372.

40 Kawana, Kichiemon, ‘Jutaku Mondai no Tenkai’, in Toshi Kōzō to Toshi Keikaku, 283384.

41 Sugiyama, Hiromu, ‘Toshi Bosai-ron no Keifu: Toshi Saigai Taisaku ni kansuru Ron-setsu no Shiteki Kōsatsu’, Toshi Keikaku, lxxxix (1976), 717.

42 Watanabe, Shun-ichi, ‘Nihon-teki Den-en Toshi-Ron no Kenkyū (1): Den-en Toshi Kabu-shiki Kaisha (1918–28) no Baai’, Nihon Toshi Keikaku Gakkai Gakujutsu Kenkyū Happyō-Kai Ronbun-shū, xii (1977), 151–6. An English version is: idem, ‘Garden City Japanese style: the case of Garden City Co., 1918–1928’, unpublished paper presented at the First International Conference on the History of Urban and Regional Planning, London, September, 1977. A further revised version will appear in Cherry, Gordon E. (ed.), Planning and the Environment in the Modern World. Vol. 2, Shaping an Urban World: Planning in the Twentieth Century (forthcoming).

43 Watanabe, Shun-ichi, ‘Nihon-teki Den-en Toshi Ron no Kenkyu II, Naimushō chihō Kyoku Yūshi (ed.), Den-en Toshi (1907) o Meggute’, Nihon Toshi Keikaku Gakkai Gaku-jutsu Kenkyū Happyō-kai Ronbun-shū, xiii (1978), 283–8.

44 Iinkai, Taikakai Naimushō-shi Henshū (ed.), Naimushō-shi (4 vols, Taikakai, 1971).

45 Pyle, Kenneth B., ‘The technology of Japanese nationalism: the local improvement movement, 1900–1918’, Journal of Asian Studies, xxxiii, 1 (11 1973), 5165; and idem, ‘Advantage of followership: German economics and Japanese bureaucarats, 1890–1925’, Journal of Japanese Studies, vi, 1 (Autumn 1974), 127–64.

46 Miyaji, Masato, Nichi-Ro Sengo Seiji-shi no Kenkyū: Teikokushugi Keisei-ki no Toshi to Nōson (Tokyo, 1973).

47 Watanabe, Shun-ichi and Sadayuki, Yasuhiro, ‘Ikeda Hiroshi Den Shiron,Tochi Jūtaku Mondai, lvi (04 1979).

48 To appear as: idem, ‘Chosaku Jidai Kubun kara Mita Ikeda Hiroshi no Shōgai’, Nihon Toshi Keikaku Gakkai Gakujutsu Kenkyū Happyō-kai Ronbun-shū, xiv (1979).

49 These pioneers other than Ikeda and Gotō would include: Seki Hajime, Kataoka Yas-ushi, Sano Riki, Uchida Shōzō, Kasahara Toshirō, Iinuma Kazumi (Issei), Takei Kōshirō, Ishikawa Hideaki (Eiyō).

50 Shibata, Tokuei, ‘Nihon no Toshi Shisō’, in Nihon no Toshi Seisaku (Yuhikaku, 1978), part 1, chapter 2.

51 Toki, Hiroshi, ‘Meiji Toshi Shakai-shugi no Shatei: Katayama Sen o Chūshin ni’, Toshi Mondai, lxx, 4 (04 1979), 90110.

52 One of the recent articles is: Tamaki, Toyojirō, ‘Osaka Kensetsu-shi Yawa, 22: Meiji Jidai no Osaka no Taika Kiroku to Kenchiku Torishimari Kisoku’, Osaka-jin, xxxii, 4 (04 1978), 4250. Also see: idem, ‘Osaka no Toshi Keisei to Toshi Keikaku no Tokus-ei’, Toshi Keikaku, lxxxiv (1975), 6–17.

53 Ishizuka, Hiromichi, Tokyo no Shakai Keizai-shi: Shinon-shugi to Toshi Mondai (Kino-kuniya Shoten, 1977).

54 Smith, Henry D. II, ‘Tokyo as an idea: an exploration of Japanese urban thought until 1945’, Journal of Japanese Studies, iv, 1 (Winter 1978), 4580.

55 Ibid., ‘Tokyo and London: comparative conceptions of the city’, in Albert Craig (ed.), Japan: A comparative view (Princeton, N. J., (1979), 49–99.

56 Hoare, James Edward, ‘The Japanese treaty ports, 1968–1899: a study of the foreign settlements (Ph. D. Dissertation, University of London, 1971).

57 Staubitz, Richard Louis, ‘The establishment of the system of local self-government (1880–1890) in Meiji Japan: Yamagata Aritomo and the meaning of “Jichi”’ (Ph. D. dissertation, Yale University, 1973).

58 Hayase, Yukiko, ‘The career of Gotō Shimpei: Japan's statesman of research, 1857–1929’ (Ph. D. dissertation, Florida State University, 1974).

59 Downard, Douglas J., ‘Tokyo: the depression years’ (Ph. D. dissertation, Indiana University, 1976).

60 Kornhauser, David, Urban Japan: Its foundations and growth (London and New York, 1976).

61 Allinson, Gary D., Japanese Urbanism: Industry and politics in Kariya, 1872–1972 (Los Angeles and London, 1975).

62 Ibid., ‘Japanese cities in the industrial era’, Journal of Urban History, iv, 4 (August 1978), 443–76.

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