Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The Baptism of the Apostles: A Fragment of Clement of Alexandria's Lost Work ‘ϒπoτvπώσɛιs in the Pratum Spirituale of John Moschus

  • Harry A. Echle (a1)

Extract

The problem of the baptism of the Apostles occupied the minds of many early ecclesiastical writers, and seems to have been particularly discussed in the period in which Clement of Alexandria lived. Tertullian presents the difficulty clearly: Since no one can attain salvation without baptism, according to the Lord's prescription: ‘Unless one is born of water, he has not life,’ how is it that the Apostles were saved, for we find none of them baptized in the Lord, except Paul? Therefore, either we must admit the danger of the others who lack the water of Christ, that the prescription may be safeguarded; or we must rescind the prescription, if they who were not baptized also attained salvation.

Copyright

References

Hide All

1 Further discussion of Clement's views on Baptism will be found in the author's forthcoming book, The Terminology of the Sacrament of Regeneration according to Clement of Alexandria, to appear in The Catholic University of America Studies in Christian Antiquity, edited by Johannes Quasten.

2 Tertullian, De baptismo 12 (CSEL 20, Reifferscheid-Wissowa 210): ‘cum vero praescribitur nemini sine baptismo competere salutem, ex illa maxime pronuntiatione domini qui ait: “nisi natus ex aqua quis erit, non habet vitam,” suboriuntur scrupulosi, immo temerarii retractatus quorundam, quomodo ex ista praescriptione Apostolis salus competat, quos tinctos non invenimus in Domino praeter Paulum. Immo cum Paulus solus ex illis baptismum Christi induerit, aut praejudicatum esse de caeterorum periculo quo careant aqua Christi, ut praescriptio salva sit, aut rescindi praescriptionem, si etiam non tinctis salus statuta est.'

3 Ibid. ‘et nunc illis ut potero respondebo qui negant Apostolos tinctos.'

4 In Alexandria, Origen, In Matt. 11, 5 (CGS Origen 10, Klostermann 42–43) speaks of Christ walking upon the waters and of the Apostles struggling against the wind and the waves, but says nothing of their baptism here.

5 Tertullian loc. cit.: ‘alii plane satis coacte injiciunt, tunc Apostolos baptismi vicem implesse, cum in navicula fluctibus adspersi operti sunt; ipsum quoque Petrum, per mare ingredientem satis mersum.'

6 Ibid.: ‘sive tincti quoquo modo fuerunt, sive illoti perseveraverunt de salute tamen Apostolorum satis temerarium est aestimare, quia illis vel primae adlectionis et exinde individuae familiaritatis praerogativa compendium baptismi conferre posset, cum illi, opinor, sequebantur ilium, qui credenti cuique salutem pollicebatur.'

7 In Alexandria, Origen regarded the baptism of John as vastly inferior to that of Christ and his disciples. Regeneration did not take place with John, but with Jesus through his disciples. In Joannem 6, 33 (GCS Origen 4, Preuschen 143): But for the view that the baptism of John did effect a remission of sins, cf. Cyril of Jerusalem, Catechesis mystagogica 2, 6 (Quasten, Monumenta eucharistica et liturgica vetustissima 85):

8 Augustine, Ep. 265 (CSEL 57, Goldbacher 643): ‘quos (discipulos) intelligimus jam fuisse baptizatos, sive baptismo Johannis, sicut nonulli arbitrantur, sive, quod magis credibile est, baptismo Christi.'

9 Missale Gothicum (PL 72, 275); Missale Gallicanum vetus (PL 72, 370); Missale Bobiense (PL 72, 302); Caesarius of Arles, Sermo 168 (PL 39, 2071).

10 Ambrose, De mysteriis 6, 32 (Quasten, Monumenta 129): ‘ideo planta ejus abluitur, ut haereditaria peccata tollantur; nostra enim propria per baptismum relaxantur.'

11 Huhn, J., Die Bedeutung des Wortes Sacramentum bei dem Kirchenvater Ambrosius (Fulda 1928) 3343.

12 Ambrose, De mysteriis 6, 31 (Quasten 129) quoting John 13, 8–10.

13 Aphraates, Demonstratio 12: ‘De Paschate’ (J Parisot, Patrologia Syriaca I, 1 [Paris 1894] 527).

14 Augustine, Ep. 55 ad Januarium 33 (CSEL 34, 2 Goldbacher 208).

15 Eusebius, Historia ecclesiastica 6, 14 (GCS Eusebius 2, 2 Schwartz 548):

16 J. Moschus, Pratum spirituale 176 (GCS Clement of Alexandria 3, Stählin 196, 21; PG 87, 3045):

17 Prophetarum vitae fabulosae (Ed. Schermann, Th., Leipzig 1907) 161:

18 Nicephorus Callistus, Historia ecclesiastica 3, 3 (PG 145, 757):

19 Hippolytus Thebanus, Frag. II (PG 117, 1034):

The Baptism of the Apostles: A Fragment of Clement of Alexandria's Lost Work ‘ϒπoτvπώσɛιs in the Pratum Spirituale of John Moschus

  • Harry A. Echle (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed