Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Superior temporal gyrus volume in antipsychotic-naive people at risk of psychosis

  • Tsutomu Takahashi (a1), Stephen J. Wood (a2), Alison R. Yung (a3), Mark Walterfang (a3), Lisa J. Phillips (a4), Bridget Soulsby (a5), Yasuhiro Kawasaki (a6), Patrick D. McGorry (a3), Michio Suzuki (a6), Dennis Velakoulis (a5) and Christos Pantelis (a5)...

Abstract

Background

Morphological abnormalities of the superior temporal gyrus have been consistently reported in schizophrenia, but the timing of their occurrence remains unclear.

Aims

To determine whether individuals exhibit superior temporal gyral changes before the onset of psychosis.

Method

We used magnetic resonance imaging to examine grey matter volumes of the superior temporal gyrus and its subregions (planum polare, Heschl's gyrus, planum temporale, and rostral and caudal regions) in 97 antipsychotic-naive individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis, of whom 31 subsequently developed psychosis and 66 did not, and 42 controls.

Results

Those at risk of psychosis had significantly smaller superior temporal gyri at baseline compared with controls bilaterally, without any prominent subregional effect; however, there was no difference between those who did and did not subsequently develop psychosis.

Conclusions

Our findings indicate that grey matter reductions of the superior temporal gyrus are present before psychosis onset, and are not due to medication, but these baseline changes are not predictive of transition to psychosis.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Superior temporal gyrus volume in antipsychotic-naive people at risk of psychosis
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Superior temporal gyrus volume in antipsychotic-naive people at risk of psychosis
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Superior temporal gyrus volume in antipsychotic-naive people at risk of psychosis
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Dr Tsutomu Takahashi, Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, c/o National Neuroscience Facility, 161 Barry Street, Carlton South, Victoria 3053, Australia. E-mail: tsutomu@med.u-toyama.ac.jp

Footnotes

Hide All

The study was supported by project grants from the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) (grants 145627, 145737, 970598, 981112, 970391), NHMRC programme grant 350241 and the Colonial Foundation. D.V. and S.J.W. were supported as research officers with funding from the NHMRC. M.W. was supported by a Stanley Research Centre grant. P.D.M. was supported by an NARSAD Distinguished Investigator Award. S.J.W. is currently supported by a Clinical Career Development Award from the NHMRC (359223) and an NARSAD Young Investigator Award. T.T. was supported to undertake this work by a grant-in-aid for scientific research (19591346) from the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science, and a research grant (17-2, 18-6) for nervous and mental disorders from the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Japan.

Declaration of interest

None.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
1 Hirayasu, Y, Shenton, ME, Salisbury, DF, Dickey, CC, Fischer, IA, Mazzoni, P, et al. Lower left temporal lobe MRI volumes in patients with first-episode schizophrenia compared with psychotic patients with first-episode affective disorder and normal subjects. Am J Psychiatry 1998; 155: 1384–91.
2 Keshavan, MS, Haas, GL, Kahn, CE, Aguilar, E, Dick, EL, Schooler, NR, et al. Superior temporal gyrus and the course of early schizophrenia: progressive, static, or reversible? J Psychiatr Res 1998; 32: 161–7.
3 Kim, JJ, Crespo-Facorro, B, Andreasen, NC, O'Leary, DS, Magnotta, V, Nopoulos, P. Morphology of the lateral superior temporal gyrus in neuroleptic naive patients with schizophrenia: relationship to symptoms. Schizophr Res 2003; 60: 173–81.
4 Hirayasu, Y, McCarley, RW, Salisbury, DF, Tanaka, S, Kwon, JS, Frumin, M, et al. Planum temporale and Heschl gyrus volume reduction in schizophrenia: a magnetic resonance imaging study of first-episode patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000; 57: 692–9.
5 Kasai, K, Shenton, ME, Salisbury, DF, Hirayasu, Y, Onitsuka, T, Spencer, MH, et al. Progressive decrease of left Heschl gyrus and planum temporale gray matter volume in first-episode schizophrenia: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2003; 60: 766–75.
6 Yung, AR, Phillips, LJ, Yuen, HP, Francey, SM, McFarlane, CA, Hallgren, M, et al. Psychosis prediction: 12-month follow up of a high-risk (‘prodromal’) group. Schizophr Res 2003; 60: 2132.
7 Yung, AR, Phillips, LJ, Yuen, HP, McGorry, PD. Risk factors for psychosis in an ultra high-risk group: psychopathology and clinical features. Schizophr Res 2004; 67: 131–42.
8 Pantelis, C, Velakoulis, D, McGorry, PD, Wood, SJ, Suckling, J, Phillips, LJ, et al. Neuroanatomical abnormalities before and after onset of psychosis: a cross-sectional and longitudinal MRI comparison. Lancet 2003; 361: 281–8.
9 Borgwardt, SJ, Riecher-Rössler, A, Dazzan, P, Chitnis, X, Aston, J, Drewe, M, et al. Regional gray matter volume abnormalities in the at risk mental state. Biol Psychiatry 2007; 61: 1148–56.
10 Crum, WR, Griffin, LD, Hill, DL, Hawkes, DJ. Zen and the art of medical image registration: correspondence, homology, and quality. Neuroimage 2003; 20: 1425–37.
11 Rajarethinam, R, Sahni, S, Rosenberg, DR, Keshavan, MS. Reduced superior temporal gyrus volume in young offspring of patients with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2004; 161: 1121–4.
12 Takahashi, T, Wood, SJ, Yung, A, Soulsby, B, McGorry, PD, Suzuki, M, et al. Progressive gray matter reduction of the superior temporal gyrus during transition to psychosis. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2009; 66: 366–76.
13 Nelson, HE, O'Connell, A. Dementia: the estimation of premorbid intelligence levels using the New Adult Reading Test. Cortex 1978; 14: 234–44.
14 Yung, AR, Phillips, LJ, McGorry, PD. Treating Schizophrenia in the Prodromal Phase. Taylor & Francis, 2004.
15 Rhoades, HM, Overall, JE. The semistructured BPRS interview and rating guide. Psychopharmacol Bull 1988; 24: 101–4.
16 Andreasen, NC. The Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). University of Iowa, 1983.
17 Maxwell, ME. Family Interview for Genetic Studies (FIGS): A Manual for FIGS. Clinical Neurogentics Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, 1992.
18 Yung, AR, Yuen, HP, McGorry, PD, Phillips, LJ, Kelly, D, Dell'Olio, M, et al. Mapping the onset of psychosis: the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2005; 39: 964–71.
19 First, MB, Spitzer, RL, Gibbon, M, Williams, JB. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV Axis I Disorders. American Psychiatric Press, 1997.
20 American Psychiatric Association. Quick Reference to the Diagnostic Criteria From DSM–IV. APA, 1994.
21 Eritaia, J, Wood, SJ, Stuart, GW, Bridle, N, Dudgeon, P, Maruff, P, et al. An optimized method for estimating intracranial volume from magnetic resonance images. Magn Reson Med 2000; 44: 973–7.
22 Takahashi, T, Suzuki, M, Zhou, SY, Tanino, R, Hagino, H, Kawasaki, Y, et al. Morphologic alterations of the parcellated superior temporal gyrus in schizophrenia spectrum. Schizophr Res 2006; 83: 131–43.
23 Meisenzahl, EM, Koutsouleris, N, Bottlender, R, Scheuerecker, J, Jäger, M, Teipel, SJ, et al. Structural brain alterations in subjects at high-risk of psychosis: a voxel-based morphometric study. Schizophr Res 2008; 102: 150–62.
24 Takahashi, T, Wood, SJ, Soulsby, B, Kawasaki, Y, McGorry, PD, Suzuki, M, et al. An MRI study of the superior temporal subregions in first-episode patients with various psychotic disorders. Schizophr Res 2009; 113: 158–66.
25 Borgwardt, SJ, McGuire, PK, Aston, J, Berger, G, Dazzan, P, Gschwandtner, U, et al. Structural brain abnormalities in individuals with an at-risk mental state who later develop psychosis. Br J Psychiatry 2007; 191 (suppl 51): s6975.
26 Pantelis, C, Yucel, M, Wood, SJ, Velakoulis, D, Sun, D, Berger, G, et al. Structural brain imaging evidence for multiple pathological processes at different stages of brain development in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 2005; 31: 672–96.
27 Job, DE, Whalley, HC, McConnell, S, Glabus, M, Johnstone, EC, Lawrie, SM. Voxel-based morphometry of grey matter densities in subjects at high risk of schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2003; 64: 113.
28 Pantelis, C, Velakoulis, D, Wood, SJ, Yücel, M, Yung, AR, Phillips, LJ, et al. Neuroimaging and emerging psychotic disorders: the Melbourne ultra-high risk studies. Int Rev Psychiatry 2007; 19: 371–81.
29 Barta, PE, Pearlson, GD, Powers, RE, Richards, SS, Tune, LE. Auditory hallucinations and smaller superior temporal gyral volume in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 1990; 147: 1457–62.
30 Shenton, ME, Kikinis, R, Jolesz, FA, Pollak, SD, LeMay, M, Wible, CG, et al. Abnormalities of the left temporal lobe and thought disorder in schizophrenia. A quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study. N Engl J Med 1992; 327: 604–12.
31 Gallagher, HL, Frith, CD. Functional imaging of ‘theory of mind’. Trends Cogn Sci 2003; 7: 7783.
32 McGorry, PD, Hickie, IB, Yung, AR, Pantelis, C, Jackson, HJ. Clinical staging of psychiatric disorders: a heuristic framework for choosing earlier, safer and more effective interventions. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2006; 40: 616–22.
33 Garner, B, Pariante, CM, Wood, SJ, Velakoulis, D, Phillips, L, Soulsby, B, et al. Pituitary volume predicts future transition to psychosis in individuals at ultra-high risk of developing psychosis. Biol Psychiatry 2005; 58: 417–23.
34 Fornito, A, Yung, AR, Wood, SJ, Phillips, LJ, Nelson, B, Cotton, S, et al. Anatomic abnormalities of the anterior cingulate cortex before psychosis onset: an MRI study of ultra-high-risk individuals. Biol Psychiatry 2008; 64: 758–65.
35 Walterfang, M, Yung, A, Wood, AG, Reutens, DC, Phillips, L, Wood, SJ, et al. Corpus callosum shape alterations in individuals prior to the onset of psychosis. Schizophr Res 2008; 103: 110.
36 Scherk, H, Falkai, P. Effects of antipsychotics on brain structure. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2006; 19: 145–50.
37 Yücel, M, Solowij, N, Respondek, C, Whittle, S, Fornito, A, Pantelis, C, et al. Regional brain abnormalities associated with long-term heavy cannabis use. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2008; 65: 694701.
38 Maier, W, Zobel, A, Wagner, M. Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: differences and overlaps. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2006; 19: 165–70.
Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Takahashi et al. supplementary material
Supplementary Figure S1

 PDF (94 KB)
94 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Superior temporal gyrus volume in antipsychotic-naive people at risk of psychosis

  • Tsutomu Takahashi (a1), Stephen J. Wood (a2), Alison R. Yung (a3), Mark Walterfang (a3), Lisa J. Phillips (a4), Bridget Soulsby (a5), Yasuhiro Kawasaki (a6), Patrick D. McGorry (a3), Michio Suzuki (a6), Dennis Velakoulis (a5) and Christos Pantelis (a5)...
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *