Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Sulcal thickness as a vulnerability indicator for schizophrenia

  • Vina M. Goghari (a1), Kelly Rehm (a2), Cameron S. Carter (a3) and Angus W. Macdonald (a4)

Abstract

Background

People with schizophrenia may demonstrate cortical abnormalities, with gyri and sulci potentially being differentially affected.

Aims

To measure frontal and temporal sulcal cortical thickness, surface area and volume in the non-psychotic relatives of patients with schizophrenia as a potential vulnerability indicator for the disorder.

Method

An automated parcellation method was used to measure the superior frontal, inferior frontal, cingulate, superior temporal and inferior temporal sulci in the relatives of patients (n=19) and controls (n=22).

Results

Compared with controls, relatives had reversed hemispheric asymmetry in their cingulate sulcal thickness and a bilateral reduction in their superior temporal sulcal thickness.

Conclusions

Cingulate and superior temporal sulcal thickness abnormalities may reflect neural abnormalities associated with the genetic liability to schizophrenia. Cortical thinning in these regions suggests that liability genes affect the dendrites, synapses or myelination process during the neurodevelopment of the cortical mantle.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Sulcal thickness as a vulnerability indicator for schizophrenia
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Sulcal thickness as a vulnerability indicator for schizophrenia
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Sulcal thickness as a vulnerability indicator for schizophrenia
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Angus W MacDonald, III, Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, N218 Elliott Hall, 75 East River Road, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. Tel:+ 1612 624 3813; fax: +1612 625 6668; email: angus@umn.edu

Footnotes

Hide All

Declaration of interest

None.

Funding detailed in Acknowledgements.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Benes, F. M., Davidson, J. & Bird, E. D. (1986) Quantitative cytoarchitectural studies of the cerebral cortex of schizophrenics. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 3135.
Benes, F. M., McSparren, J., Bird, E. D., et al (1991) Deficits in small interneurons in prefrontal and cingulate cortices of schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 9961001.
Benes, F. M., Vincent, S. L. & Todtenkopf, M. (2001) The density of pyramidal and nonpyramidal neurons in anterior cingulate cortex of schizophrenic and bipolar subjects. Biological Psychiatry, 50, 395406.
Chance, S. A., Tzotzoli, P. M., Vitelli, A., et al (2004) The cytoarchitecture of sulcal folding in Heschl's sulcus and the temporal cortex in the normal brain and schizophrenia: lamina thickness and cell density. Neuroscience Letters, 367, 384388.
Dale, A. M., Fischl, B. & Sereno, M. I. (1999) Cortical surface-based analysis. I. Segmentation and surface reconstruction. Neuroimage, 9, 179194.
Duvernoy, D. M. (1991) The Human Brain: Surface, Three-Dimensional Sectional Anatomy and MRI. Springer.
Eberly, D., Lancaster, J. & Alyassin, A. (1991) On gray scale image measurements: II. Surface area and volume. CVGIP: Graphical Models and Image Processing, 53, 550562.
Falkai, P., Honer, W. G., Kamer, T., et al (2007) Disturbed frontal gyrification within families affected with schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 41, 805813.
First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., et al (1996) Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders Patient Version (SCID-P, Version 2). New York State Psychiatric Institute, Biometrics Research.
Fischl, B. & Dale, A. M. (2000) Measuring the thickness of the human cerebral cortex from magnetic resonance images. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97, 1105011055.
Fischl, B., Sereno, M. I. & Dale, A. M. (1999a) Cortical surface-based analysis. II: Inflation, flattening, and a surface-based coordinate system. Neuroimage, 9, 195207.
Fischl, B., Sereno, M. I., Tootell, R. B., et al (1999b) High-resolution intersubject averaging and a coordinate system for the cortical surface. Human Brain Mapping, 8, 272284.
Fischl, B., Liu, A. & Dale, A. M. (2001) Automated manifold surgery: constructing geometrically accurate and topologically correct models of the human cerebral cortex. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 20, 7080.
Fischl, B., van der Kouwe, A., Destrieux, C., et al (2004) Automatically parcellating the human cerebral cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 14, 1122.
Gellert, W., Kustner, H., Hellwich, M., et al (1975) The VNR Concise Encyclopedia of Mathematics. Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Goghari, V. M., Rehm, K., Carter, C. S., et al (2007) Regionally specific cortical thinning and gray matter abnormalities in the healthy relatives of schizophrenia patients. Cerebral Cortex, 17, 415424.
Harris, J. M., Yates, S., Miller, P., et al (2004a) Gyrification in first-episode schizophrenia: a morphometric study. Biological Psychiatry, 55, 141147.
Harris, J. M., Whalley, H., Yates, S., et al (2004b) Abnormal cortical folding in high-risk individuals: a predictor of the development of schizophrenia? Biological Psychiatry, 56, 182189.
Hilgetag, C. C. & Barbas, H. (2005) Developmental mechanics of the primate cerebral cortex. Anatomy and Embryology, 210, 411417.
Hilgetag, C. C. & Barbas, H. (2006) Role of mechanical factors in the morphology of the primate cerebral cortex. PLoS Computational Biology, 2, e22.
Jou, R. J., Hardan, A. Y. & Keshavan, M. S. (2005) Reduced cortical folding in individuals at high risk for schizophrenia: a pilot study. Schizophrenia Research, 75, 309313.
Kuperberg, G. R., Broome, M. R., McGuire, P. K., et al (2003) Regionally localized thinning of the cerebral cortex in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 878888.
Le Provost, J. B., Bartrés-Faz, D., Paillère-Martinot, M. L., et al (2003) Paracingulate sulcus morphology in men with early-onset schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 182, 228232.
MacDonald, A. W., Becker, T. M. & Carter, C. S. (2006) Functional magnetic resonance imaging study of cognitive control in the healthy relatives of schizophrenia patients. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 12411249.
Mathalon, D. H., Sullivan, E. V., Lim, K. O., et al (2001) Progressive brain volume changes and the clinical course of schizophrenia in men: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 148157.
Narr, K. L., Toga, A. W., Szeszko, P., et al (2005) Cortical thinning in cingulate and occipital cortices in first episode schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 58, 3240.
Pfohl, B., Stagl, D. & Zimmerman, M. (1982) The Structured Interview for DSM-III Personality Disorders (SID–P). University of lowa Department of Psychiatry.
Rajarethinam, R., Sahni, S., Rosenberg, D. R., et al (2004) Reduced superior temporal gyrus volume in young offspring of patients with schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 11211124.
Rehm, K., Schaper, K., Anderson, J., et al (2004) Putting our heads together: a consensus approach to brain/non-brain segmentation in TI-weighted MR volumes. Neuroimage, 22, 12621270.
Rehm, K., Goghari, V. M. & Rottenberg, D. A. (2005) Automatic extraction of left and right hemispheres from MRI brain volumes using a refined registration method. Neuroimage, 26 (suppl. I), CD-ROM.
Sled, J. G., Zijdenbos, A. P. & Evans, A. C. (1998) A nonparametric method for automatic correction of intensity nonuniformity in MRI data. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 17, 8797.
Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B. W., Gibbon, M., et al (1990) Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–III–R–Non-Patient Edition (SCID–NP, Version 1.0). American Psychiatric Press.
Stark, A. K., Uylings, H. B., Sanz-Arigita, E., et al (2004) Glial cell loss in the anterior cingulate cortex, a subregion of the prefrontal cortex, in subjects with schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 882888.
Stevens, J. P. (2002) Applied Multivariate Statistics for the Social Sciences (4th edn). Erlbaum.
Van Essen, D. C. (1997) A tension-based theory of morphogenesis and compact wiring in the central nervous system. Nature, 385, 313318.
Vogt, B. A., Finch, D. M. & Olson, C. R. (1992) Functional heterogeneity in cingulate cortex: the anterior executive and posterior evaluative regions. Cerebral Cortex, 2, 435443.
Welker, W. (1990) Why does the cerebral cortex fissure andfold? A review of determinents of gyri and sulci. In Cerebral Cortex (eds Jones, E. G. & Peters, A.), pp. 3136. Plenum.
Wheeler, D. G. & Harper, C. G. (2007) Localised reductions in gyrification in the posterior cingulate: schizophrenia and controls. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 31, 319327
White, T., Andreasen, N. C., Nopoulos, P., et al (2003) Gyrification abnormalities in childhood- and adolescent-onset schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 418426.
Yücel, M., Stuart, G. W., Maruff, P., et al (2002) Paracingulate morphologic differences in males with established schizophrenia: a magnetic resonance imaging morphometric study. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 1523.
Yücel, M., Wood, S. J., Phillips, L. J., et al (2003) Morphology of the anterior cingulate cortex in young men at ultra-high risk of developing a psychotic illness. British Journal of Psychiatry, 182, 518524.
Zijdenbos, A. P., Dawant, B. M., Margolin, R. A., et al (1994) Morphometric analysis of white matter lesions in MR images: method and validation. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 13, 716724.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Goghari et al. supplementary material
Supplementary Figure S1

 PDF (271 KB)
271 KB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Goghari et al. supplementary material
Supplementary Material

 Unknown (582 bytes)
582 bytes

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Sulcal thickness as a vulnerability indicator for schizophrenia

  • Vina M. Goghari (a1), Kelly Rehm (a2), Cameron S. Carter (a3) and Angus W. Macdonald (a4)
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *