Marmot, MG, Bosma, H, Hemingway, H, Brunner, E, Stansfeld, S. Contribution of job control and other risk factors to social variations in coronary heart disease incidence. Lancet
1997; 350: 235–9.
Stringhini, S, Dugravot, A, Kivimaki, M, Shipley, M, Zins, M, Goldberg, M, et al Do different measures of early life socioeconomic circumstances predict adult mortality? Evidence from the British Whitehall II and French GAZEL studies. J Epidemiol Community Health
2011; 65: 1097–103.
Lorant, V, Deliege, D, Eaton, W, Robert, A, Philippot, P, Ansseau, M. Socioeconomic inequalities in depression: a meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol
2003; 157: 98–112.
Fryers, T, Melzer, D, Jenkins, R. Social inequalities and the common mental disorders. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
2003; 38: 229–37.
Jokela, M, Batty, GD, Vahtera, J, Elovainio, M, Kivimäki, M. Socioeconomic inequalities in common mental disorders and psychotherapy treatment in the UK between 1991 and 2009. Br J Psychiatry
2013; 202: 115–20.
Sharp, ES, Gatz, M. Relationship between education and dementia: an updated systematic review. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord
2011; 25: 289–304.
Qiu, CX, Karp, A, von Strauss, E, Winblad, B, Fratiglioni, L, Bellander, T. Lifetime principal occupation and risk of Alzheimer's disease in the Kungsholmen Project. Am J Ind Med
2003; 43: 204–11.
Persson, G, Skoog, I. A prospective population study of psychosocial risk factors for late onset dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
1996; 11: 15–22.
Karp, A, Kåreholt, I, Qiu, C, Bellander, T, Winblad, B, Fratiglioni, L. Relation of education and occupation-based socioeconomic status to incident Alzheimer's disease. Am J Epidemiol
2004; 159: 175–83.
Mindell, J, Biddulph, JP, Hirani, V, Stamatakis, E, Craig, R, Nunn, S, et al Cohort profile: the Health Survey for England. Int J Epidemiol
2012; 41: 1585–93.
Macintyre, S, McKay, L, Der, G, Hiscock, R. Socio-economic position and health: what you observe depends on how you measure it. J Public Health
2003; 25: 288.
Royal College of Physicians of London. A Great and Growing Evil: The Medical Consequences of Alcohol Abuse. Royal College of Physicians of London, 1987.
Goldberg, DP, Gater, R, Sartorius, N, Ustun, T, Piccinelli, M, Gureje, O, et al The validity of two versions of the GHQ in the WHO study of mental illness in general health care. Psychol Med
1997; 27: 191–7.
Aalto, A-M, Elovainio, M, Kivimaki, M, Uutela, A, Pirkola, S. The Beck Depression Inventory and General Health Questionnaire as measures of depression in the general population: a validation study with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview as the gold standard. Psychiatry Res
2012; 197: 163–71.
Russ, TC, Hamer, M, Stamatakis, E, Starr, JM, Batty, GD. Psychological distress as a risk factor for dementia death. Arch Intern Med
2011; 171: 1858–9.
World Health Organization. Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death (9th revision).
World Health Organization. ICD-10: International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (10th revision).
Cox, DR. Regression models and life-tables. J Roy Stat Soc B
1972; 34: 187–220.
Launer, L, Andersen, K, Dewey, ME, Letenneur, L, Ott, A, Amaducci, L, et al Rates and risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Neurology
1999; 52: 78–84.
Batty, GD, Der, G, Macintyre, S, Deary, IJ. Does IQ explain socioeconomic inequalities in health? Evidence from a population based cohort study in the west of Scotland. BMJ
2006; 332: 580–4.
Viechtbauer, W. Conducting meta-analyses in R with the metafor package. J Stat Softw
2010; 36: 1–48.
von Elm, E, Altman, D, Egger, M, Pocock, SJ, Gøtzsche, PC, Vandenbroucke, JP. Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. BMJ
2007; 335: 806–8.
Sampson, EL, Blanchard, MR, Jones, L, Tookman, A, King, M. Dementia in the acute hospital: prospective cohort study of prevalence and mortality. Br J Psychiatry
2009; 195: 61–6.
Martyn, CN, Pippard, EC. Usefulness of mortality data in determining the geography and time trends of dementia. J Epidemiol Community Health
1988; 42: 134.
Russ, TC, Batty, GD, Starr, JM. Cognitive and behavioural predictors of survival in Alzheimer disease: results from a sample of treated patients in a tertiary-referral memory clinic. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
2012; 27: 844–53.
Ferri, CP, Prince, M, Brayne, C, Brodaty, H, Fratiglioni, L, Ganguli, M, et al Global prevalence of dementia: a Delphi consensus study. Lancet
2006; 366: 2112–7.
MRC, CFAS. Cognitive function and dementia in six areas of England and Wales: the distribution of MMSE and prevalence of GMS organicity level in the MRC CFA Study. Psychol Med
1998; 28: 319–35.
Matthews, F, Brayne, C. The incidence of dementia in England and Wales: findings from the five identical sites of the MRC CFA Study. PLoS Med
2005; 2: e193.
Norton, MC, Ostbye, T, Smith, KR, Munger, RG, Tschanz, JT. Early parental death and late-life dementia risk: findings from the Cache County Study. Age Ageing
2009; 38: 340–3.
Whalley, LJ, Starr, JM, Athawes, R, Hunter, D, Pattie, A, Deary, IJ. Childhood mental ability and dementia. Neurology
2000; 55: 1455–9.
McGurn, B, Deary, IJ, Starr, JM. Childhood cognitive ability and risk of late-onset Alzheimer and vascular dementia. Neurology
2008; 71: 1051–6.
Snowdon, DA, Kemper, SJ, Mortimer, JA, Greiner, LH, Wekstein, DR, Markesbery, WR. Linguistic ability in early life and cognitive function and Alzheimer's disease in late life – findings from the Nun Study. JAMA
1996; 275: 528–32.
Stern, Y, Gurland, B, Tatemichi, TK, Tang, MX, Wilder, D, Mayeux, R. Influence of education and occupation on the incidence of Alzheimer's Disease. JAMA
1994; 271: 1004–10.
Braak, H, Braak, E. Frequency of stages of Alzheimer-related lesions in different age categories. Neurobiol Aging
1997; 18: 351–7.
Stern, Y, Alexander, G, Prohovnik, I, Stricks, L, Link, B, Lennon, M, et al Relationship between lifetime occupation and parietal flow. Neurology
1995; 45: 55–60.
Gilleard, C. Education and Alzheimer's disease: a review of recent international epidemiological studies. Aging Ment Health
1997; 1: 33–46.
Del Ser, T, Hachinski, V, Merskey, H, Munoz, DG. An autopsy-verified study of the effect of education on degenerative dementia. Brain
1999; 122: 2309–19.
Stern, Y, Albert, S, Tang, MX, Tsai, WY. Rate of memory decline in AD is related to education and occupation: cognitive reserve?
1999; 53: 1942–7.