Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Reduced hippocampal volumes and memory loss in patients with early- and late-onset depression

  • Ian Hickie (a1), Sharon Naismith (a1), Philip B. Ward (a2), Keelin Turner (a2), Elizabeth Scott (a1), Philip Mitchell (a3), Kay Wilhelm (a3) and Gordon Parker (a3)...

Abstract

Background

Hippocampal volume reduction has been reported inconsistently in people with major depression.

Aims

To evaluate the interrelationships between hippocampal volumes, memory and key clinical, vascular and genetic risk factors.

Method

Totals of 66 people with depression and 20 control participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and clinical assessment. Measures of depression severity, psychomotor retardation, verbal and visual memory and vascular and specific genetic risk factors were collected.

Results

Reduced hippocampal volumes occurred in older people with depression, those with both early-onset and late-onset disorders and those with the melancholic subtype. Reduced hippocampal volumes were associated with deficits in visual and verbal memory performance.

Conclusions

Although reduced hippocampal volumes are most pronounced in late-onset depression, older people with early-onset disorders also display volume changes and memory loss. No clear vascular or genetic risk factors explain these findings. Hippocampal volume changes may explain how depression emerges as a risk factor to dementia.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Reduced hippocampal volumes and memory loss in patients with early- and late-onset depression
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Reduced hippocampal volumes and memory loss in patients with early- and late-onset depression
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Reduced hippocampal volumes and memory loss in patients with early- and late-onset depression
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Professor Ian Hickie, Brain & Mind Research Institute, PO Box M160, Missenden Road, NSW Australia. Tel: +612 9351 0799, Fax: +612 9351 0652; E-mail: ianh@med.usyd.edu.au

Footnotes

Hide All

Declaration of interest

Supported by National Health and Medical Research Council Program Grant No. 953208.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) (DSM–IV). Washington, DC: APA.
Andreasen, N. C., Cizadlo, T., Harris, G., et al (1993) Voxel processing techniques for the antemortem study of neuroanatomy and neuropathology using magnetic resonance imaging. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 5, 121130.
Benton, A. L. (1967) Problems of test construction in the field of aphasia. Cortex, 3, 3258.
Cook, M. J., Fish, D. R., Shorvon, D., et al (1992) Hippocampal volumetric and morphometric studies in frontal and temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain, 115, 10011015.
Duman, R. S., Heninger, G. R. & Nestler, E. J. (1997) A molecular and cellular theory of depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 597606.
Duvernoy, H. M. (1991) The Human Brain Surface, Three-Dimensional Sectional Anatomy and MRI. Vienna: Springer-Verlag.
Dwivedi, Y., Rizavi, H. S., Conley, R. R., et al (2003) Altered gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and receptor tyrosine kinase B in postmortem brain of suicide subjects. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 804815.
Elliot, R. (1998) The neuropsychological profile in unipolar depression. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2, 447454.
Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E. & McHugh, P. R. (1975) ‘Mini-mental state’. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189198.
Hamilton, M. (1960) A rating scale for depression. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 23, 5661.
Hickie, I., Scott, E., Mitchell, P., et al (1995) Subcortical hyperintensities on magnetic resonance imaging: clinical correlates and prognostic significance in patients with severe depression. Biological Psychiatry, 37, 151160.
Hickie, I., Lloyd, A., Dixon, G., et al (1997a) Utilising molecular biological and histopathological techniques to study the dopaminergic systems in patients with melancholia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 31, 2735.
Hickie, I., Scott, E., Wilhelm, K., et al (1997b) Subcortical hyperintensities on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with severe depression – a longitudinal evaluation. Biological Psychiatry, 42, 367374.
Hickie, I., Scott, E., Naismith, S., et al (2001) Lateonset depression: genetic, vascular and clinical contributions. Psychological Medicine, 31, 14031412.
Hickie, I., Simons, L., Naismith, S., et al (2003) Vascular risk to late-life depression: evidence from a longitudinal community study. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 37, 6265.
Jorm, A. F. (2001) History of depression as a risk factor for dementia: an updated review. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 776781.
Levitan, C., Ward, P. B. & Catts, S. (1999) Superior temporal gyral volumes and laterality correlates of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 46, 955962.
Lezak, M. D. (1983) Neuropsychological Assessment (2nd edn). New York: Oxford University Press.
MacQueen, G. M., Campbell, S., McEwen, B. S., et al (2003) Course of illness, hippocampal function, and hippocampal volume in major depression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 100, 13871392.
Naismith, S., Hickie, I., Ward, P. B., et al (2002) Caudate nucleus volumes and genetic determinants of homocysteine metabolism in the prediction of psychomotor speed in older persons with depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 20962098.
Naismith, S., Hickie, I., Turner, K., et al (2003) Neuropsychological performance in patients with depression is associated with clinical, etiological and genetic risk factors. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 25, 866877.
Parker, G., Hadzi-Pavlovic, D., Wilhelm, K., et al (1994) Defining melancholia: properties of a refined sign-based measure. British Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 316326.
Posener, J. A., Wang, L., Price, J. L., et al (2003) High-dimensional mapping of the hippocampus in depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 8389.
Sapolsky, R. M. (2000) The possibility of neurotoxicity in the hippocampus in major depression: a primer on neuron death. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 755765.
Shah, P. J., Ebmeier, K. P., Glabus, M. F., et al (1998) Cortical grey matter reductions associated with treatment-resistant chronic unipolar depression. Controlled magnetic resonance imaging study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 527532.
Sheline, Y. I., Sanghavi, M., Mintun, M. A., et al (1999) Depression duration but not age predicts hippocampal volume loss in healthy women with recurrent major depression. Journal of Neuroscience, 19, 50345043.
Sheline, Y. L., Gado, M. H. & Kraemer, H. C. (2003) Untreated depression and hippocampal volume loss. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 15161518.
Steffens, D. C., Payne, M. E., Greenberg, D. L., et al (2002) Hippocampal volume and incident dementia in geriatric depression. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 10, 6271.
Vakili, K., Pillay, S. S., Lafer, B., et al (2000) Hippocampal volume in primary unipolar major depression: a magnetic resonance imaging study. Biological Psychiatry, 47, 10871090.
von Gunten, A., Fox, N. C., Cipolotti, L., et al (2000) A volumetric study of hippocampus and amygdala in depressed patients with subjective memory problems. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 12, 493498.
Watson, C., Anderman, F., Gloor, P., et al (1992) Anatomic basis of and hippocampal volume measurement by magnetic resonance imaging. Neurology, 42, 17431750.

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Reduced hippocampal volumes and memory loss in patients with early- and late-onset depression

  • Ian Hickie (a1), Sharon Naismith (a1), Philip B. Ward (a2), Keelin Turner (a2), Elizabeth Scott (a1), Philip Mitchell (a3), Kay Wilhelm (a3) and Gordon Parker (a3)...
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *