US Department of Health. National Strategy for Suicide Prevention: Goals and Objectives for Action. US Department of Health and Human Services, 2001.
Department of Health. National Suicide Prevention Strategy for England and Wales. Department of Health, 2002.
Health Service Executive, Department of Health and Children. Reach Out: National Strategy for Action on Suicide Prevention 2005–2014. Health Service Executive, 2005.
Associate Minister of Health. The New Zealand Suicide Prevention Strategy 2006–2016. Ministry of Health, 2006.
World Health Organization. Trencín Statement on Prisons and Mental Health. WHO, 2008.
Fazel, S, Benning, R, Danesh, J. Suicides in male prisoners in England and Wales, 1978–2003. Lancet
2005; 366: 1301–2.
DuRand, CJ, Burtka, GJ, Federman, EJ, Haycox, JA, Smith, JW. A quarter century of suicide in a major urban jail: implications for community psychiatry. Am J Psychiatry
1995; 152: 1077–80.
Fazel, S, Grann, M, Kling, B, Hawton, K. Prison suicide in 12 countries: an ecological study of 861 suicides during 2003–2007. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
Konrad, N, Daigle, MS, Daniel, AE, Dear, GE, Frottier, P, Hayes, LM, et al. Preventing suicide in prisons, Part 1. Crisis
2007; 28: 113–21.
Daigle, MS, Daniel, AE, Dear, GE, Frottier, P, Hayes, LM, Kerkhof, A, et al. Preventing suicide in prison, Part 2. Crisis
2007; 28: 122–30.
Fazel, S, Cartwright, J, Norman-Nott, A, Hawton, K. Suicide in prisoners: a systematic review of risk factors. J Clin Psychiatry
2008; 69: 1721–31.
Hawton, K, Appleby, L, Platt, S, Foster, T, Cooper, J, Malmberg, A, et al. The psychological autopsy approach to studying suicide: a review of methodological issues. J Affect Disord
1998; 50: 269–76.
Fruehwald, S, Matschnig, T, Koenig, F, Bauer, P, Frottier, P. Suicide in custody: case-control study. Br J Psychiatry
2004; 185: 494–8.
Birmingham, L, Mason, D, Grubin, D. Health screening at first reception into prison. J Forensic Psychiatr
1997; 8: 435–9.
Shaw, J, Baker, D, Hunt, IM, Moloney, A, Appleby, L. Suicide by prisoners: national clinical survey. Br J Psychiatry
2004; 184: 263–7.
Marzano, L, Rivlin, A, Fazel, S, Hawton, K. Interviewing survivors of near-lethal self-harm: a novel approach for investigating suicide amongst prisoners. J Forensic Legal Med
2009; 16: 152–5.
Beautrais, AL. Suicides and serious suicide attempts: two populations or one?
2001; 31: 837–45.
Daniel, A, Fleming, J. Serious suicide attempts in a state correctional system and strategies to prevent suicide. J Psychiatry Law
2005; 33: 227–47.
Rosen, DH. The serious suicide attempt: five-year follow-up study of 886 patients. J Am Med Assoc
1976; 235: 2105–9.
Borrill, J, Snow, L, Medlicott, D, Teers, R, Paton, J. Learning from near misses: interviews with women who survived an incident of severe self-harm. Howard J Crim Justice
2005; 44: 57–69.
Kresnow, M, Ikeda, RM, Mercy, JA, Powell, KE, Potter, LB, Simon, TR, et al. An unmatched case-control study of nearly lethal suicide attempts in Houston, Texas: research methods and measurements. Suicide Life Threat Behav
2001; 32: 7–19.
Hawton, K, Harriss, L, Hall, S, Simkin, S, Bale, E, Bond, A. Deliberate self-harm in Oxford, 1990–2000: a time of change in patient characteristics. Psychol Med
2003; 33: 987–96.
Beck, AT, Schuyler, D, Herman, J. Development of suicidal intent scales. In The Predicion of Suicide (ed Beck, AT, Resnik, H, Lettieri, DJ): 45–6. Charles, 1974.
Sheehan, D, Lecrubier, Y, Harnett-Sheehan, K, Amorim, P, Janavs, J, Weiller, E, et al. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview. J Clin Psychiatry
1998; 59: 22–33.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (4th edn) (DSM–IV). APA, 1994.
World Health Organization. The ICD–10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines. WHO, 1992.
Amorim, P, Lecrubier, Y, Weiller, E, Hergueta, T, Sheehan, D. DSM-III-R Psychotic disorders: procedural validity of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Concordance and causes for discordance with the CIDI. Eur Psychiatry
1998; 13: 26–34.
Sheehan, DV, Lecrubier, Y, Sheehan, KH, Janavs, J, Weiller, E, Keskiner, A, et al. The validity of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) according to the SCID-P and its reliability. Eur Psychiatry
1997; 12: 232–41.
Lecrubier, Y, Sheehan, DV, Weiller, E, Amorim, P, Bonora, I, Sheehan, KH, et al. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). A short diagnostic structured interview: reliability and validity according to the CIDI. Eur Psychiatry
1997; 12: 224–31.
Spitzer, RL, Williams, JBW, Gibbon, M, First, MB. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–III–R. American Psychiatric Press, 1990.
Black, DW, Arndt, S, Hale, N, Rogerson, R. Use of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) as a screening tool in prisons: results of a preliminary study. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law
2004; 32: 158–62.
Gunter, TD, Arndt, S, Wenman, G, Allen, J, Loveless, P, Sieleni, B, et al. Frequency of mental and addictive disorders among 320 men and women entering the Iowa prison system: use of the MINI-Plus. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law
2008; 36: 27–34.
Falissard, B, Loze, J-Y, Gasquet, I, Duburc, A, de Beaurepaire, C, Fagnani, F, et al. Prevalence of mental disorders in French prisons for men. BMC Psychiatry
2006; 6: 33.
Mickey, RM, Greenland, S. The impact of confounder selection criteria on effect estimation. Am J Epidemiol
1989; 129: 125–37.
Tong, S, Lu, Y. Identification of confounders in the assessment of the relationship between lead exposure and child development. Ann Epidemiol
2001; 11: 38–45.
HM Prison Service. Suicide and Self-Harm Prevention. HM Prison Service, 2007.
Harriss, L, Hawton, K, Zahl, D. Value of measuring suicidal intent in the assessment of people attending hospital following self-poisoning or self-injury. Br J Psychiatry
2005; 186: 60–6.
Harris, EC, Barraclough, B. Suicide as an outcome for mental disorders: a meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry
1997; 170: 205–28.
Conner, KR, Duberstein, PR. Predisposing and precipitating factors for suicide among alcoholics: empirical review and conceptual integration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res
2004; 28: S6–17.
Baillargeon, J, Penn, JV, Thomas, CR, Temple, JR, Baillargeon, G, Murray, OJ. Psychiatric disorders and suicide in the nation's largest state prison system. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law
2009; 37: 188–93.
Goff, A, Rose, E, Rose, S, Purves, D. Does PTSD occur in sentenced prison populations? A systematic literature review. Crim Behav Ment Health
2007; 17: 152–62.
Duberstein, PR, Conwell, Y. Personality disorders and completed suicide: a methodological and conceptual review. Clin Psychology
1997; 4: 359–76.
Jenkins, R, Bhugra, D, Meltzer, H, Singleton, N, Bebbington, P, Brugha, T, et al. Psychiatric and social aspects of suicidal behaviour in prisons. Psychol Med
2005; 35: 257–69.
Steffens, DC, Skoog, I, Norton, MC, Hart, AD, Tschanz, JT, Plassman, BL, et al. Prevalence of depression and its treatment in an elderly population: the Cache County study. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2000; 57: 601–7.
Kessler, RC, Demler, O, Frank, RG, Olfson, M, Pincus, HA, Walters, EE, et al. Prevalence and treatment of mental disorders, 1990 to 2003. N Engl J Med
2005; 352: 2515–23.
Lonnqvist, J. Psychiatric aspects of suicidal behaviour. In Suicide and Attempted Suicide (ed Hawton, K, van Heeringen, K): 107–20. John Wiley & Sons, 2000.
Fryers, T, Brugha, T, Grounds, A, Meltzer, D. Severe mental illness in prisoners. BMJ
1998; 317: 1025–6.
Birmingham, L, Wilson, S, Adshead, G. Prison medicine: ethics and equivalence. Br J Psychiatry
2006; 188: 4–6.
Bluglass, R. Recruitment and training of prison doctors. BMJ
1990; 301: 249–50.
National Association for the Care and Resettlement of Offenders. Suicide in Prison. NACRO, 1990.
Phillips, M. A Study of Suicides and Attempted Suicides at HMP Brixton, 1973–1983. Home Office, 1986.
Lieb, K, Zanarini, MC, Schmahl, C, Linehan, M, Bohus, M. Borderline personality disorder. Lancet
2004; 364: 453–61.
Fazel, S, Danesh, J. Serious mental disorder in 23000 prisoners: a systematic review of 62 surveys. Lancet
2002; 359: 545–50.
Reed, J. Mental health care in prisons. Br J Psychiatry
2003; 182: 287–8.
Birmingham, L. Diversion from custody. Adv Psychiatr Treat
2001; 7: 198–207.
Liebling, A. Suicides in Prison. Routledge, 1992.
Groves, A. Blood on the walls: self-mutilation in prisons. Aust NZ J Criminol
2004; 37: 49–64.
Frottier, P, Koenig, F, Seyringer, M, Matschnig, T, Fruehwald, S. The distillation of “VISCI”: towards a better identification of suicidal inmates. Suicide Life Threat Behav
2009; 39: 376–84.
Bukstel, LH, Kilmann, PR. Psychological effects of imprisonment on confined individuals. Psychol Bull
1980; 85: 469–93.
Pratt, D, Piper, M, Appleby, L, Webb, R, Shaw, J. Suicide in recently released prisoners: a population-based cohort study. Lancet
2006; 368: 119–23.