Penn, DL, Waldheter, EJ, Perkins, DO, Mueser, KT, Lieberman, JA. Psychosocial treatment for first-episode psychosis: a research update. Am J Psychiatry
2005; 162: 2220–2.
Marshall, M, Rathbone, J. Early intervention for psychosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev
2011; 6: CD004718.
Nordentoft, M, Rasmussen, JO, Melau, M, Hjorthoj, CR, Thorup, AA. How successful are first episode programs? A review of the evidence for specialized assertive early intervention. Curr Opin Psychiatry
2014; 27: 167–72.
Orygen Youth Health. The Australian Clinical Guidelines for Early Psychosis. Orygen Youth Health, 2008.
National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. Schizophrenia: Core Interventions in the Treatment and Management of Schizophrenia in Primary and Secondary Care (update), NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 82.
Singh, SP, Fisher, HL. Early intervention in psychosis: obstacles and opportunities. Adv Psychiatr Treat
2005; 11: 71–8.
Friis, S. Early specialised treatment for first-episode psychosis: does it make a difference?
Br J Psychiatry
2010; 196: 339–40.
Castle, DJ. Should early psychosis intervention be the focus for mental health services?
Adv Psychiatr Treat
2011; 17: 398–400.
Ruggeri, M, Bonetto, C, Lasalvia, A, De Girolamo, G, Fioritti, A, Rucci, P, et al. A multi-element psychosocial intervention for early psychosis (GET UP PIANO TRIAL) conducted in a catchment area of 10 million inhabitants: study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial. Trials
2012; 13: 73.
Ruggeri, M, Bonetto, C, Lasalvia, A, Fioritti, A, de Girolamo, G, Santonastaso, P, et al. Feasibility and effectiveness of a multi-element psychosocial intervention for first-episode psychosis: results from the cluster-randomized controlled GET UP PIANO trial in a catchment area of 10 million inhabitants. Schizophr Bull
2015; 4: 1192–203.
Kane, JM, Robinson, DG, Schooler, NR, Mueser, KT, Penn, DL, Rosenheck, RA, et al. Comprehensive versus usual community care for first-episode psychosis: 2-year outcomes from the NIMH RAISE early treatment program. Am J Psychiatry
2016; 173: 362–72.
Crespo-Facorro, B, de la Foz, VO, Ayesa-Arriola, R, Pérez-Iglesias, R, Mata, I, Suarez-Pinilla, P, et al. Prediction of acute clinical response following a first episode of non affective psychosis: results of a cohort of 375 patients from the Spanish PAFIP study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry
2013; 44: 162–7.
Harrington, E, Neffgen, M, Sasalu, P, Sehgal, T, Woolley, J. Initial predictors of outcome in an early intervention in psychosis service. Early Interv Psychiatry
2013; 7: 311–4
Bergé, D, Mané, A, Salgado, P, Cortizo, R, Garnier, C, Gomez, L, et al. Predictors of relapse and functioning in first-episode psychosis: a two-year follow-up study. Psychiatr Serv
2016; 67: 227–33.
Albert, N, Bertelsen, M, Thorup, A, Petersen, L, Jeppesen, P, Le Quack, P, et al. Predictors of recovery from psychosis. Analyses of clinical and social factors associated with recovery among patients with first-episode psychosis after 5 years. Schizophr Res
2011; 125: 257–66.
Allott, K, Alvarez-Jimenez, M, Killackey, EJ, Bendall, S, McGorry, PD, Jackson, HJ. Patient predictors of symptom and functional outcome following cognitive behaviour therapy or befriending in first-episode psychosis. Schizophr Res
2011; 132: 125–30.
Schimmelmann, BG, Huber, CG, Lambert, M, Cotton, S, McGorry, PD, Conus, P. Impact of duration of untreated psychosis on pre-treatment, baseline, and outcome characteristics in an epidemiological first-episode psychosis cohort. J Psychiatr Res
2008; 42: 982–90.
Ruggeri, M, Lasalvia, A, Bonetto, C. A new generation of pragmatic trials of psychosocial interventions is needed. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci
2013; 22: 111–7.
Wolitzky-Taylor, KB, Arch, JJ, Rosenfield, D, Craske, MG. Moderators and non-specific predictors of treatment outcome for anxiety disorders: a comparison of cognitive behavioral therapy to acceptance and commitment therapy. J Consult Clin Psychol
2012; 80: 786–99.
Kraemer, HC, Wilson, GT, Fairburn, CG, Agras, WS. Mediators and moderators of treatment effects in randomized clinical trials. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2002; 59: 877–83.
Jeppesen, P, Petersen, L, Thorup, A, Abel, MB, Ohlenschlaeger, J, Christensen, TO, et al. The association between pre-morbid adjustment, duration of untreated psychosis and outcome in first-episode psychosis. Psychol Med
2008; 38: 157–66.
Marshall, M, Lewis, S, Lockwood, A, Drake, R, Jones, P, Croudace, T. Association between duration of untreated psychosis and outcome in cohorts of first-episode patients: a systematic review. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2005; 62: 975–83.
Malla, A, Norman, R, Schmitz, N, Manchanda, R, Béchard-Evans, L, Takhar, J, et al. Predictors of rate and time to remission in first-episode psychosis: a two-year outcome study. Psychol Med
2006; 36: 649–8.
Ayesa-Arriola, R, Rodríguez-Sánchez, JM, Pérez-Iglesias, R, González-Blanch, C, Pardo-García, G, Tabares-Seisdedos, R, et al. The relevance of cognitive, clinical and premorbid variables in predicting functional outcome for individuals with first-episode psychosis: a 3 year longitudinal study. Psychiatry Res
2013; 209: 302–8.
World Health Organization. The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines.
World Health Organization. Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN), Version 1.0.
Kuipers, E, Fowler, D, Garety, P, Chisholm, D, Freeman, D, Dunn, G, et al. London–East Anglia randomised controlled trial of cognitive–behavioural therapy for psychosis. III: follow-up and economic evaluation at 18 months. Br J Psychiatry
1998; 173: 61–68.
Garety, PA, Fowler, DG, Freeman, D, Bebbington, P, Dunn, G, Kuipers, E. Cognitive–behavioural therapy and family intervention for relapse prevention and symptom reduction in psychosis: randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry
2008; 192: 412–23.
Kuipers, E, Leff, J, Lam, D. Family Work for Schizophrenia: A Practical Guide.
Burns, T, Firn, M. Assertive Outreach in Mental Health. A Manual for Practitioners.
Oxford University Press, 2002.
Ferrannini, L, Ghio, L, Gibertoni, D, Lora, A, Tibaldi, G, Neri, G, et al. Thirty-five years of community psychiatry in Italy. J Nerv Ment Dis
2014; 202: 432–9.
Kay, SR, Fiszbein, A
Opler, LA. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull
1987; 13: 261–76.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (4th edn) (DSM-IV). APA, 1994.
Hamilton, M. A rating scale for depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry
1960, 23: 56–62.
Foerster, A, Lewis, S, Owen, M, Murray, R. Pre-morbid adjustment and personality in psychosis. Effects of sex and diagnosis. Br J Psychiatry
1991; 158: 171–6.
David, A, Buchanan, A, Reed, A, Almeida, O. The assessment of insight in psychosis. Br J Psychiatry
1992; 161: 599–602
Singh, SP, Cooper, JE, Fisher, HL, Tarrant, CJ, Lloyd, T, Banjo, J, et al. Determining the chronology and components of psychosis onset: the Nottingham Onset Schedule (NOS). Schizophr Res
2005; 80: 117–30.
Campbell MK, Piaggio G, Elbourne DR, Altman DG; CONSORT Group. Consort 2010 statement: extension to cluster randomised trials. BMJ
2012; 345: e5661.
Kraemer, HC. Discovering, comparing, and combining moderators of treatment on outcome after randomized clinical trials: a parametric approach. Stat Med
2013; 32: 1964–73.
Salimi, K, Jarskog, LF, Lieberman, JA. Antipsychotic drugs for first-episode schizophrenia: a comparative review. CNS Drugs
2009; 23: 837–55.
Schennach, R, Riedel, M, Musil, R, Möller, HJ. Treatment response in first-episode schizophrenia. Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci
2012; 10: 78–87.
Howard, R, Rabins, PV, Seeman, MV, Jeste, DV. Late-onset schizophrenia and very-late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis: an international consensus. The International Late-Onset Schizophrenia Group. Am J Psychiatry
2000; 157: 172–8.
Vahia, IV, Palmer, BW, Depp, C, Fellows, I, Golshan, S, Kraemer, G, et al. Is late-onset schizophrenia a subtype of schizophrenia?
Acta Psychiatr Scand
2010; 122: 414–26.
Smeets-Janssen, MM, Meesters, PD, Comijs, HC, Eikelenboom, P, Smit, JH, de Haan, L, et al. Theory of Mind differences in older patients with early-onset and late-onset paranoid schizophrenia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
2013; 28: 1141–6.
Hanssen, M, van der Werf, M, Verkaaik, M, Arts, B, Myin-Germeys, I, van Os, J, et al. Comparative study of clinical and neuropsychological characteristics between early, late and very-late-onset schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
2015; 23: 852–62.
Selvendra, A, Baetens, D, Trauer, T, Petrakis, M, Castle, D. First episode psychosis in an adult area mental health service – a closer look at early and late-onset first episode psychosis. Australas Psychiatry
2014; 22: 235–41.
Greenfield, P, Joshi, S, Christian, S, Lekkos, P, Gregorowicz, A, Fisher, HL, et al. First episode psychosis in the over 35s: is there a role for early intervention?
Early Interv Psychiatry
Lappin, JM, Heslin, M, Jones, PB, Doody, GA, Reininghaus, UA, Demjaha, A, et al. Outcomes following first-episode psychosis - why we should intervene early in all ages, not only in youth. Aust NZ J Psychiatry
2016; 50: 1055–63.
Boutron, I, Tubach, F, Giraudeau, B, Ravaud, P. Blinding was judged more difficult to achieve and maintain in nonpharmacologic than pharmacologic trials. J Clin Epidemiol
2004; 57: 543–50.