American Psychiatric Association (1980) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd edn). Washington, DC: APA.
Andreasen, N. C., Endicott, J., Spitzer, R., et al (1977) The family history method using diagnostic criteria. Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 1229–1235.
Andreasen, N. C., Rice, J., Endicott, J., et al (1986) The family history approach to diagnosis: how useful is it? Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 421–429.
Asarnow, R. T., Cromwell, R. L. & Rennick, P. M. (1978) Cognitive and evoked response measures of information processing in schizophrenics with and without a family history of schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 166, 719–730.
Baker, N. J., Berry, S. L. & Adler, L. E. (1987) Family diagnoses missed on a clinical inpatient service. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 630–632.
Bartels, M., Mann, K. & Friedrich, W. (1985) Tardive dyskinesia: marked predominance of non-genetic schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 20, 101–103.
Cohen, J. (1960) A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20, 37–46.
Dixon, W. J. (1983) BMDP Statistical Software. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Eaves, L. J., Kendler, K. S. & Schulz, S. C. (1986) The familial-sporadic classification: its power for the resolution of genetic and environmental etiologic factors. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 20, 115–130.
Ernst, C. & Angst, J. (1983) Birth Order. Berlin: Springer Verlag.
Fish, B. (1977) Neurobiologic antecedents of schizophrenia in children: evidence for an inherited, congenital neurointegrative defect. Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 1297–1313.
Fish, B. (1987) Infant predictors of the longitudinal course of schizophrenic development. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 13, 395–409.
Fleiss, J. L., Williams, J. B. W. & Dubro, A. F. (1986) Logistic regression analysis of psychiatric data. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 20, 195–209.
Goldin, L. R., DeLisi, L. E. & Gershon, E. S. (1987) Unravelling the relationship between genetic and environmental risk factors in psychiatric disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 302–305.
Kendler, K. S., Tsuano, M. T. & Hays, P. (1987) Age at onset in schizophrenia: a familial perspective. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 881–890.
Kinney, D. K., Woods, B. T. & Yurgelun-Todd, D. (1986) Neurologic abnormalities in schizophrenic patients and their families. II. Neurological and psychiatric findings in relatives. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 665–668.
Lewis, S. W. & Murray, R. M. (1987) Obstetric complications, neurodevelopmental deviance and risk of schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 21, 413–422.
Lewis, S. W., Reveley, A. M., Reveley, M. A., et al (1987) The familial/sporadic distinction as a strategy in schizophrenia research. British Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 306–313.
Lewis, S. W., Owen, M. J. & Murray, R. M. (1989) Obstetric complications and schizophrenia: methodology and mechanisms. In Schizophrenia: Scientific Progress (eds S. C. Schulz & C. A. Tamminga). New York: Oxford University Press.
McGuffin, P., Farmer, A. & Gottesman, I. I. (1987) Is there really a split in schizophrenia: the genetic evidence. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 581–592.
McNeil, T. F. (1987) Perinatal influences in the development of schizophrenia. In Biological Perspectives of Schizophrenia (eds H. Helmchen & F. A. Henn). Bristol: John Wiley.
McNeil, T. F. & Kaij, L. (1978) Obstetric factors in the development of schizophrenia. In The Nature of Schizophrenia (eds L. C. Wynne, R. L. Cromwell & S. Matthysse). New York: John Wiley.
Murray, R. M. & Lewis, S. W. (1987) Is schizophrenia a neurodevelopmental disorder? British Medical Journal, 295, 681–682.
National Institute of Mental Health (1976) Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS). In ECDEU Assessment Manual (ed W. Guy). Rockville: US Department of Health, Education & Welfare.
Nimgaonkar, V. L., Wessely, S. & Murray, R. M. (1988) Prevalence of familiality, obstetric complications, and structural brain damage in schizophrenic patients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 191–197.
O'Callaghan, E., Larkin, C., Redmond, O., et al (1988) ‘Early onset schizophrenia’ after teenage head injury: a case report with magnetic resonance imaging. British Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 394–396.
O'Callaghan, E., Larkin, C. & Waddington, J. L. (1990) Obstetric complications in schizophrenia and the validity of maternal recall. Psychological Medicine, 20, 89–94.
Orzack, M. H. & Kornetsky, C. (1971) Environmental and familial predictors of attentional behaviour in chronic schizophrenics. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 9, 21–29.
Owen, M. J., Lewis, S. W. & Murray, R. M. (1988) Obstetric complications and schizophrenia: a computed tomographic study. Psychological Medicine, 18, 331–339.
Parnas, J., Schulsinger, F., Teasdale, T. W., et al (1982) Perinatal complications and clinical outcome within the schizophrenia spectrum. British Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 416–420.
Reitan, R. M. (1958) Validity of the trail making test as an indicator of organic brain dysfunction. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 8, 271–276.
Schooler, N. R. & Kane, J. M. (1982) Research diagnoses for tardive dyskinesia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 486–487.
Waddington, J. L. (1987) Tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia and other disorders: associations with ageing, cognitive dysfunction and structural brain pathology in relation to neuroleptic exposure. Human Psychopharmacology, 2, 11–22.
Waddington, J. L. (1988) The ageing brain, neuroleptic drugs and the enigma of schizophrenia. Irish Journal of Medical Science, 157, 135–141.
Waddington, J. L. & Youssef, H. A. (1987) Is schizophrenia a neurodevelopmental disorder? British Medical Journal, 295, 997–998.
Waddington, J. L. & Youssef, H. A. (1988) The expression of schizophrenia, affective disorder, and vulnerability to tardive dyskinesia in an extensive pedigree. British Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 376–381.
Waddington, J. L., Youssef, H. A., Dolphin, C., et al (1987) Cognitive dysfunction, negative symptoms and tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia: their association in relation to topography of involuntary movements and criterion of their abnormality. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 907–912.
Walker, E. & Shaye, J. (1982) Familial schizophrenia: a predictor of neuromotor and attentional abnormalities in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 1153–1156.
Wegner, J. T., Catalano, F., Gibraltar, J., et al (1985) Schizophrenics with tardive dyskinesia: neuropsychological deficit and family psychopathology. Archives of General Psychiatry; 42, 860–865.
Weinberger, D. R. (1987) Implications of normal brain development for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 660–669.
Weinhold, P., Wegner, J. T. & Kane, J. M. (1981) Familial occurrence of tardive dyskinesia. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 42, 165–166.
Yassa, R. & Ananth, J. (1981) Familial tardive dyskinesia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 138, 1618–1619.
Youssef, H. A. & Waddington, J. L. (1988a) Primitive (developmental) reflexes and diffuse cerebral dysfunction in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder: overrepresentation in patients with tardive dyskinesia. Biological Psychiatry, 23, 791–796.
Youssef, H. A. & Waddington, J. L. (1988b) Involuntary orofacial movements in hospitalised patients with mental handicap or epilepsy: relationship to developmental/intellectual deficit and presence or absence of long-term exposure to neuroleptics. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 51, 863–865.
Zec, R. F. & Weinberger, D. R. (1986) Relationship between CT scan findings and neuropsychological performance in chronic schizophrenia. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 9, 49–61.