Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome: the Current Status

  • Mary M. Robertson (a1)

Abstract

The Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome is a movement disorder characterised by both motor and vocal (phonic) tics. It was once thought to be rare, and the literature until the 1970s consisted predominantly of case reports, both highlighting the fascinating clinical manifestations and speculating as to their aetiology. Many areas of GTS are under investigation, including the neurology, psychopathology, neurophysiology, biochemistry, and genetics. This review briefly considers early descriptions of GTS as well as current research, highlighting the areas of agreement and controversy.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Abuzzahab, F. E. & Anderson, F. O. (1973) Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. Minnesota Medicine, 56, 492496.
American Psychiatric Association (1987) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd edn, revised) (DSM–III–R). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Annett, M. (1970) A classification of hand preferences by association analysis. British Journal of Psychology, 61, 303321.
Araneta, E., Magen, J., Musci, M. N., et al (1975) Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome symptom onset at age 35. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 5, 224230.
Asam, U. (1982) A follow-up study of Tourette syndrome. In Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (eds Friedhoff, A. J. & Chase, T. N.), Advances in Neurology, Vol. 35. New York: Raven Press.
Ascher, E. (1948) Psychodynamic considerations in Gilles de la Tourette's disease (maladie des tics): with a report of five cases and discussion of the literature.
Balthasar, K. (1957) Uber das anatomische Substrat der generalisierten Tic-Krankheit (maladie des tics, Gilles de la Tourette): Entwicklungshemmung des Corpus striatum. Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten (Berlin), 195, 531 549.
Barabas, G., Matthews, W. S. & Ferrari, M. (1984a) Somnambulism in children with Tourette syndrome. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 26, 457460.
Barabas, G., Matthews, W. S. & Ferrari, M. (1984b) Disorders of arousal in Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. Neurology, 34, 815817.
Barabas, G., Matthews, W. S. & Ferrari, M. (1984c) Tourette's syndrome and migraine. Archives of Neurology, 41, 871872.
Barabas, G., Matthews, W. S. & Ferrari, M. (1985) Sleep disorders in Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. Neurology, 35, 1397.
Baraitser, M. (1982) The Genetics of Neurological Disorders. Oxford University Press.
Baron, M., Shapiro, E., Shapiro, A. K., et al (1981) Genetic analysis of Tourette syndrome suggesting major gene effect. American Journal of Human Genetics, 33, 767775.
Beard, G. M. (1886) Experiments with the “jumpers” or “jumping Frenchmen” of Main. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders, 7, 487490.
Berg, R. (1985) A case of Tourette syndrome treated with nifedipine. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 72, 400401.
Bergen, D., Tanner, C. M. & Wilson, R. (1981) The electroencephalogram in Tourette syndrome. Annals of Neurology, 11, 382383.
Bleich, A., Bernout, E., Apter, A., et al (1985) Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and mania in an adolescent. British Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 664665.
Bliss, J. (1980) Sensory experiences of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 13431347.
Bock, R. & Goldberger, L. (1985) Tonic, phasic and cortical arousal in Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 48, 535544.
Bockner, S. (1959) Gilles de la Tourette's disease. Journal of Mental Science, 105, 10781081.
Bonnet, K. A. (1982) Neurobiological dissection of Tourette syndrome: a neurochemical focus on a human neuroanatomical model. In Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (eds Friedhoff, A. J. & Chase, T. N.), Advances in Neurology, Vol. 35. New York: Raven Press.
Boswell, J. (1867) The Life of Samuel Johnson LLD. London: George Routledge & Sons.
Bruun, R. D. (1982) Dysphoric phenomena associated with haloperidol treatment of Tourette syndrome. In Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome. Advances in Neurology, Vol. 35 (eds Friedhoff, A. J. & Chase, T. N.), pp. 433436. New York: Raven Press.
Bruun, R. D. (1984) Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome: an overview of clinical experience. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 126133.
Bruun, R. D. & Shapiro, A. K. (1972) Differential diagnosis of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 155, 328332.
Burd, & Kerbeshian, J. (1984) Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome and bipolar disorder. Archives of Neurology, 41, 1236.
Burd, & Kerbeshian, J. (1985) Tourette syndrome, atypical pervasive developmental disorder and Ganser syndrome in a 15-year-old, visually impaired, mentally retarded boy. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 30, 7476.
Burd, , Kerbeshian, J., Wikenheiser, M., et al (1986) Prevalence of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome in North Dakota adults. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 787788.
Butler, I. J. (1984) Tourette's syndrome. Neurological Clinics, 2, 571580.
Caine, E. D. (1985) Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome: a review of clinical and research studies and consideration of future directions for investigation. Archives of Neurology, 42, 393397.
Caine, E. D., Margolin, D. I., Brown, G. L., et al (1978) Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome, tardive dyskinesia and psychosis in an adolescent. American Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 241243.
Caine, E. D., & Polinsky, R. J. (1979) Haloperidol-induced dysphoria in patients with Tourette syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 12161217.
Caine, E. D., & Polinsky, R. J. (1981) Tardive dyskinesia in persons with Gilles de la Tourette's disease. Archives of Neurology, 38, 471472.
Caine, E. D., Lowell, R. W., Chiverton, P., et al (1985) Tourette syndrome and HLA. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 69, 201206.
Caine, E. D., McBride, M. C., Chiverton, P., et al (1988) Tourette syndrome in Monroe county school children. Neurology, 38, 472475.
Caparulo, B. K., Cohen, D. J., Rothman, S. L., et al (1981) Computed tomographic brain scanning in children with developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 20, 338357.
Chakraborty, A. (1960) Gilles de la Tourette's disease. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 4, 187189.
Chase, T. N., Foster, N. L., Fedio, P., et al (1984) Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: studies with the fluorine-18-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic method. Annals of Neurology, 15 (Suppl.), S175.
Chase, T. N., Geoffrey, V., Gillespie, M., et al (1986) Structural and functional studies of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Revue Neurologique (Paris), 142, 851855.
Ciprian, J. (1980) Three cases of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. Treatment with chlorimipramine: a preliminary report. Journal of Orthomolecular Psychiatry, 9, 116120.
Clark, D. F. (1966) Behaviour therapy of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. British Journal of Psychiatry, 112, 771778.
Cohen, D. J., Detlor, J., Young, J. G., et al (1980) Clonidine ameliorates Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 13501357.
Cohen, D. J., Detlor, J., Shaywitz, B., et al (1982) Interactions of biological and psychological factors in the natural history of Tourette syndrome: a paradigm for childhood neuropsychiatric disorders. In Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (eds Friedhoff, A. J. & Chase, T. N.), Advances in Neurology, Vol. 35. New York: Raven Press.
Colvin, C. L. & Tankanow, R. M. (1985) Pimozide: use in Tourette's syndrome. Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy, 19, 421424.
Comings, D. E., Gursey, B., Hecht, T., et al (1982) HLA typing in Tourette syndrome In Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (eds Friedhoff, A. J. & Chase, T. N.), Advances in Neurology, Vol. 35. New York: Raven Press.
Comings, D. E. & Comings, B. G. (1984) Tourette's syndrome and attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity: are they genetically related? Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 138146.
Comings, D. E. & Comings, B. G., Devor, E. J., et al (1984a) Detection of major gene for Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. American Journal of Human Genetics, 36, 586600.
Comings, D. E. & Comings, B. G.(1985) Tourette syndrome: clinical and psychological aspects of 250 cases. American Journal of Human Genetics, 37, 435450.
Comings, D. E. & Comings, B. G. (1986) Evidence for an X-linked modifier gene affecting the expression of Tourette syndrome and its relevance to the increased frequency of speech, cognitive, behavioural disorders in males. Proceedings of the National Academic Sciences USA, 83, 25512555.
Comings, D. E., Comings, B. G., Dietz, G., et al (1986a) Evidence the Tourette syndrome gene is at 18 g 22.1. Abstracts, 7th International Congress of Human Genetics, Berlin, 1986, Abstract M, 11, 23, p. 620.
Comings, D. E. & Comings, B. G. (1987a) A controlled study of Tourette syndrome, I– VII. American Journal of Human Genetics, 41, 701866.
Comings, D. E. & Comings, B. G. (1987b) Hereditary agoraphobia and obsessive-compulsive behaviour in relatives of patients with Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. British Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 195199.
Corbett, J. A., Matthews, A. M., Connell, P. H., et al (1969) Tics and Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome: a follow-up study and critical review. British Journal of Psychiatry, 115, 12291241.
Cummings, J. L. & Frankel, M. (1985) Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and the neurological basis of obsessions and compulsions. Biological Psychiatry, 20, 11171126.
Devinsky, O. (1983) Neuroanatomy of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome: possible midbrain involvement. Archives of Neurology, 40, 508514.
Devor, E. J. (1984) Brief communication – complex segregation analysis of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: further evidence for a major locus mode of transmission. American Journal of Human Genetics, 36, 704709.
Dewulf, A. & van Bogaert, L. (1941) Etudes anatomo-cliniques de syndromes hypercinetiques complexes – Partie 3. Une observation anatomo-clinique de maladie des tics (Gilles de la Tourette). Monatsschrift für Psychiatrie und Neurologie, 104, 5361.
Doleys, D. M. & Kurtz, P. S. (1974) A behavioral treatment program for the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Psychological Reports, 35, 4348.
Dunlap, J. R. (1960) A case of Gilles de la Tourette's disease (maladie des tics): a study of the intrafamily dynamics. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 130, 340344.
Eisenberg, L., Ascher, E. & Kanner, L. (1959) A clinical study of Gilles de la Tourette's disease (maladie des tics) in children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 115, 715723.
El-Assra, A. (1987) A case of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome in Saudi Arabia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 397398.
Eldridge, R., Sweet, R., Lake, C. R., et al (1977) Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome: clinical, genetic, psychologic, and biochemical aspects in 21 selected families. Neurology, 27, 115124.
Eldridge, R. & Denckla, M. B. (1987) The inheritance of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine, 317, 13461347.
Ellison, R. M. (1964) Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. Medical Journal of Australia, 1, 153155.
Erenberg, G. (1985) Sleep disorders in Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. Neurology, 35, 1397.
Erenberg, G. & Rothner, A. D. (1978) Tourette syndrome: a childhood disorder. Cleveland Clinic Quarterly, 45, 207212.
Erenberg, G., Cruse, R. P. & Rothner, A. D. (1986) Tourette syndrome: an analysis of 200 pediatric and adolescent cases. Cleveland Clinic Quarterly, 53, 127131.
Escalar, G., Majeron, M. A., Finavera, L., et al (1972) Contribute alla conoscenza della sindrome Gilles de la Tourette. Minerva Medico, 63, 35173522.
Fahn, S. (1982) A case of post-traumatic tic syndrome. In Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome. Advances in Neurology, Vol. 35 (eds Friedhoff, A. J. & Chase, T. N.), pp. 349350. New York: Raven Press.
Fahn, S. (1987) Paroxysmal myoclonic dystonia with vocalisations. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 50, 117118.
Faux, E. J. (1966) Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, social psychiatric management. Archives of General Psychiatry, 14, 139142.
Feinberg, T. E., Shapiro, A. K. & Shapiro, E. (1986) Paroxysmal myoclonic dystonia with vocalisations: new entity or variant of preexisting syndromes? Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 49, 5257.
Fenichel, O. (1945) The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis. New York: Norton and Company.
Ferenczi, S. (1921) Psychoanalytic observations on tic. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 2, 130.
Fernando, S. J. M. (1967) Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome: a report on four cases and a review of published case reports. British Journal of Psychiatry, 113, 607617.
Fernando, S. J. M. (1976) Six cases of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. British Journal of Psychiatry, 128, 436441.
Field, J. R., Corbin, K. B., Goldstein, N. P., et al (1966) Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. Neurology, 16, 453462.
Finegold, I. (1985) Allergy and Tourette's syndrome. Annals of Allergy, 55, 119121.
Fog, R. & Pakkenberg, H. (1980) Theoretical and clinical aspects of the Tourette syndrome (chronic multiple tic). Journal of Neural Transmission, 16, Suppl. 16, 211215.
Fog, R. & Pakkenberg, H., Regeur, L., et al (1982) “Tardive” Tourette syndrome in relation to long term neuroleptic treatment of multiple tics. In Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (eds Friedhoff, A. J. & Chase, T. N.), Advances in Neurology, Vol. 35. New York: Raven Press.
Frankel, M., Cummings, J. L., Robertson, M. M., et al (1986) Obsessions and compulsions in Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. Neurology, 36, 378382.
Friedhoff, A. J. (1986) Insights into the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Revue Neurologique (Paris), 142, 860864.
Friel, P. B. (1973) Familial incidence of Gilles de la Tourette's disease, with observations on aetiology and treatment. British Journal of Psychiatry, 122, 655658.
Fulop, G., Phillips, R. A., Shapiro, A. K., et al (1987) ECG changes during haloperidol and pimozide treatment of Tourette's disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 673675.
Gilles de la Tourette, G. (1885) Etude sur une affection nerveuse caracterisée par de l'incoordination motrice accompagnée d'echolalie et de copralalie. Archives of Neurology, 9, 19 42, 158–200.
Gilles de la Tourette, G. (1899) La maladie des tics convulsifs. La Semaine Médicate, 19, 153156.
Gillies, D. R. N. & Forsythe, W. I. (1984) Treatment of multiple tics and the Tourette syndrome. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 26, 822833.
Gillman, M. A. & Sandyk, R. (1985) Tourette syndrome and the opioid system. Psychiatry Research, 15, 161162.
Glaze, D. G., Jamnkovic, J. & Frost, J. D. (1982) Sleep in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: disorder of arousal. Neurology, 32, 586592.
Golden, G. S. (1977) The effect of central nervous system stimulants on Tourette syndrome. Annals of Neurology, 2, 6970.
Golden, G. S. (1984) Psychologic and neuropsychologic aspects of Tourette's syndrome. Neurologic Clinics, 21, 91102.
Golden, G. S. (1985) Tardive dyskinesia in Tourette syndrome. Pediatric Neurology, 1, 192194.
Golden, G. S. & Greenhill, L. (1981) Tourette syndrome in mentally retarded children. Mental Retardation, 19, 17.
Golden, G. S. & Hood, O. J. (1982) Tics and tremors. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 29, 95103.
Goldstein, J. A. (1984) Nifedipine treatment of Tourette's syndrome. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 45, 360.
Gonce, M. & Barbeau, A. (1977) Seven cases of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome: partial relief with clonazepam: a pilot study. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 4, 279283.
Green, R. C. & Pitman, R. K. (1986) Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder In Obsessive–Compulsive Disorders: Theory and Management (eds Jenike, M. A., Baer, L. & Minichiello, W. O.). Littleton MA: PSGP Publishing Co.
Grossman, H. Y., Mostofsky, D. I. & Harrison, R. H. (1986) Psychological aspects of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 228235.
Guggenheim, M. A. (1979) Familial Tourette syndrome. Annals of Neurology, 5, 104.
Guinon, G. (1886) Sur la maladie des tics convulsifs. Revue de Médecine, 6, 5080.
Haber, S. N., Kowall, N. W., Vonsattel, J. P., et al (1986) Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome: a postmortem neuropathological and immunohistochemical study. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 75, 225241.
Hagin, R. A., Beecher, R., Pagano, G., et al (1982) Effects of Tourette syndrome on learning. In Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome, (eds Friedhoff, A. J. & Chase, T. N.), Advances in Neurology, Vol. 35. New York: Raven Press.
Hajal, F. & Leach, A. M. (1981) Familial aspects of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 138, 9092.
Hammond, W. A. (1884) Myriachit, a newly described disease of the nervous system and its analogues. British Medical Journal, ii, 758759.
Harcherik, D. F., Cohen, D. J., Ort, S., et al (1985) Computed tomographic brain scanning in four neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 731734.
Heuscher, J. E. (1953) Intermediate states of consciousness in patients with generalised tics. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 117, 2938.
Incagnoli, T. & Kane, R. (1983) Developmental perspective of the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 57, 12711281.
Itard, J. M. G. (1825) Memoire sur quelques fonctions involontaires des appareils de la locomotion de la prehension et de la voix. Archives of General Medicine, 8, 385407.
Jagger, J., Prusoff, B. A., Cohen, D. J., et al (1982) The epidemiology of Tourette's syndrome: a pilot study. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 8, 267278.
Jankovic, J., Glaze, D. G. & Frost, J. D. (1984) Effect of tetrabenazine on tics and sleep of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. Neurology, 34, 688692.
Jenkins, R. L. & Ashby, H. B. (1983) Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in identical twins. Archives of Neurology, 40, 249251.
Jeste, D. V., Cutler, N. R., Kaufmann, C. A., et al (1983) Low-dose apomorphine and bromocriptine in neuroleptic-induced movement disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 18, 10851091.
Joschko, M. & Rourke, B. P. (1982) Neuropsychological dimensions of Tourette syndrome: test–retest stability and implications for intervention. In Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (eds Friedhoff, A. J. & Chase, T. N.), Advances in Neurology, Vol. 35. New York: Raven Press.
Joy-sobrino, J. J., Rivera-Rayes, L. & Aviles-Michel, R. (1985) Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: an undiagnosed disorder. Boletin-Associacion Medico de Puerto Rico (San Juan), 77, 202206.
Kanner, L. (1957) The muscular system, tics. Child Psychiatry, 3rd edn. Springfield: Clarks C. Thomas.
Karson, C. N., Kaufmann, C. A., Shapiro, A. K., et al (1985) Eye-blink rate in Tourette's syndrome. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 173, 566568.
Kelman, D. H. (1965) Gilles de la Tourette's disease in children: a review of the literature. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 6, 219226.
Kerbeshian, J. & Burd, L. (1986a) A second visually impaired, mentally retarded male with pervasive developmental disorder, Tourette disorder and Ganser's syndrome: diagnostic classification and treatment. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 6, 6775.
Kerbeshian, J. & Burd, L. (1986b) Asperger's syndrome and Tourette syndrome: the case of the pinball wizard. British Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 731736.
Kerbeshian, J. & Burd, L. (1987) Are schizophreniform symptoms present in attenuated form in children with Tourette disorder and other developmental disorders? Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 32, 123135.
Kidd, K. K., Prusoff, B. A. & Cohen, D. J. (1980) Familial pattern of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 13361347.
Kjaer, M., Boris, P. & Hansen, L. G. (1986) Abnormal CT scan in a patient with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Neuroradiology, 28, 362363.
Klawans, H. L., Falk, D. K., Nausieda, P. A., et al (1978) Gilles de la Tourette syndrome after long-term chlorpromazine therapy. Neurology, 28, 10641066.
Kondo, K. & Nomura, Y. (1982) Tourette syndrome in Japan: etiologic considerations based on associated factors and familial clustering. In Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (eds Friedhoff, A. J. & Chase, T. N.), Advances in Neurology, Vol. 35. New York: Raven Press.
Krumholz, A., Singer, H. S., Niedermeyer, E., et al (1983) Electrophysiological studies in Tourette's syndrome. Annals of Neurology, 14, 638641.
Kurlan, R., Behr, J., Medved, L., et al (1986) Familial Tourette's syndrome: report of a large pedigree and potential for linkage analysis. Neurology, 36, 772776.
Kurlan, R., Behr, J., Medved, L., et al (1987) Severity of Tourette's syndrome in one large kindred: implication for determination of disease prevalence rate. Neurology, 44, 268269.
Lacey, D. J. (1986) Diagnosis of Tourette syndrome in childhood: the need for heightened awareness. Clinical Pediatrics, 25, 433435.
Lakke, J. P. W. F. & Wilmink, J. T. (1985) A case of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome with midbrain involvement. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 48, 12931296.
Lal, S. & Alansari, E. (1986) Tourette-like syndrome following low dose short-term neuroleptic treatment. Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques, 13, 125128.
Leckman, J. F. & Cohen, D. J. (1983) Recent advances in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: implications for clinical practice and future research. Psychiatric Developments, 3, 301316.
Leckman, J. F. Detlor, J., Harcherik, D. F., et al (1985) Short and long term treatment of Tourette's syndrome with donidine: a clinical perspective. Neurology, 35, 343351.
Leckman, J. F., Ort, S., Caruso, K. A., et al (1986) Rebound phenomena in Tourette's syndrome after abrupt withdrawal of clonidine. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 11681176.
Leckman, J. F., Price, R. A., Walkup, J. T., et al (1987) Nongenetic factors in Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 100.
Lees, A. J. (1986) Georges Gilles de la Tourette: the man and his times. Revue Neurologique (Paris), 142, 808816.
Lees, A. J., Robertson, M., Trimble, M. R., et al (1984) A clinical study of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in the United Kingdom. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 47, 18.
Lieh Mak, F., Chung, S. Y., Lee, P., et al (1982) Tourette syndrome in the Chinese: a follow-up of 15 cases. In Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (eds Friedhoff, A. J. & Chase, T. N.), Advances in Neurology, Vol. 35. New York: Raven Press.
Linet, L. S. (1985) Tourette syndrome, pimozide and school phobia: the neuroleptic separation anxiety syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 613615.
Lowe, O. (1986) Tourette's syndrome: management of oral complications. Journal of Dentistry for Children, 53, 456460.
Lowe, T. L., Cohen, D. J., Detlor, J., et al (1982) Stimulant medications precipitate Tourette's syndrome. Journal of the American Medical Association, 247, 11681169.
Lucas, A. R. & Rodin, E. A. (1973) Electroencephalogram in Gilles de la Tourette's disease. Fifth World Congress of Psychiatry, Mexico City, 85 89.
Lucas, A. R., Beard, C. M., Rajput, A. H., et al (1982) Tourette syndrome in Rochester, Minnesota, 1968–1979. In Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (eds Friedhoff, A. J. & Chase, T. N.), Advances in Neurology, Vol. 35. New York: Raven Press.
MacDonald, I. J. (1963) A case of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, with some aetiological observations. British Journal of Psychiatry, 109, 206210.
Mahler, M. S. (1944) Tics and impulsions in children: a study of motility. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 13, 430444.
Mahler, M. S. & Rangell, L. (1943) A psychosomatic study of maladie des tics (Gilles de la Tourette's Disease). Psychiatric Quarterly, 17, 579603.
Mahler, M. S., Luke, J. A. & Daltroff, W. (1945) Clinical and follow up study of the tic syndrome in children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 15, 631647.
Mahler, M. S., & Luke, J. A.(1946) Outcome of the tic syndrome. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 103, 433445.
Mandell, M. (1986) Allergy and Tourette's syndrome. Annals of Allergy, 56, 507508.
Marneros, A. (1983) Adult onset of Tourette's syndrome: a case report. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 924925.
McHenry, L. C. Jr (1967) Samuel Johnson's tics and gesticulations. Journal of the History of Medicine, 22, 152168.
Meige, H. & Feindel, E. (1907) Tics and their Treatment. Translated and edited by Wilson, S. A. K. New York: William Wood and Co.
Mendelson, W. B., Caine, E. D., Goyer, P., et al (1980) Sleep in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Biological Psychiatry, 15, 339343.
Merikangas, J. R., Merikangas, K. R., Kopp, U., et al (1985) Blood choline and response to clonazepam and haloperidol in Tourette's syndrome. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 72, 395399.
Messiha, F. S. (1979) A pharmacotherapeutic rationale for the use of lithium carbonate in Tourette's syndrome. Proceedings of the Western Pharmacological Society (Seattle), 22, 2227.
Mesulam, M.-M. & Petersen, R. C. (1987) Treatment of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome: eight-year, practice-based experience in a predominantly adult population. Neurology, 37, 18281833.
Mikkelsen, E. J., Detlor, J. & Cohen, D. J. (1981) School avoidance and social phobia triggered by haloperidol in patients with Tourette's disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 138, 15721575.
Min, S. K. & Lee, H. (1986) A clinical study of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in Korea. British Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 644647.
Minoeraa, R. B., van Gemert, T. M. & van de Wetering, B. J. M. (1988) Onverwachte presentatiewijzen van het symdroom van Gilles de la Tourette. Tijdschrift voor Psychiatric, 30, 246254.
Mizrahi, E. M., Holtzman, D. & Tharp, B. (1980) Haloperidol-induced tardive dyskinesia in a child with Gilles de la Tourette's disease. Archives of Neurology, 37, 380.
Moldofsky, H., Tullis, C. & Lamon, R. (1974) Multiple tic syndrome (Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome). Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 15, 282292.
Moldofsky, H., & Sandor, P. (1983) Lecithin in the treatment of Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 16271629.
Mondrup, K., Dupont, E. & Braendgaard, H. (1985) Progabide in the treatment of hyperkinetic extrapyramidal movement disorders. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 72, 341343.
Montgomery, M. A., Clayton, P. J. & Friedhoff, A. J. (1982) Psychiatric illness in Tourette syndrome patients and first-degree relatives. In Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (eds Friedhoff, A. J. & Chase, T. N.), Advances in Neurology, Vol. 35. New York: Raven Press.
Morkovkin, A. V., Chekhonin, V. P. & Kammenykh, L. N. (1986) Immunofermentativnyi metod opredeleniia spetsificheskogo alpha 2-globuline mozga v syvortke krovi u detei s sindromon turetta. Zhurnal Nevropatologii I Psikhiatrii Imeni S. S. Korskakova (Moskva), 86, 14741476.
Morphew, J. A. & Sim, M. (1969) Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome: a clinical and psychopathological study. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 42, 293301.
Mueller, J. & Aminoff, M. J. (1982) Tourette-like syndrome after long-term neuroleptic drug treatment. British Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 191193.
Murray, T. J. (1979) Dr Samuel Johnson's movement disorders. British Medical Journal, i, 16101614.
Nada Raja, R. (1970) Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. British Journal of Psychiatry, 117, 476.
Nee, L. E., Caine, E. D., Polinsky, R. J., et al (1980) Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: clinical and family study of 50 cases. Annals of Neurology, 7, 4149.
Nomura, Y. & Segawa, M. (1982) Tourette syndrome in the Chinese: a follow-up of 15 cases. In Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (eds Friedhoff, A. J. & Chase, T. N.), Advances in Neurology, Vol. 35. New York: Raven Press.
Obeso, J. A., Rothwell, J. C. & Marsen, C. D. (1982) The neurophysiology of Tourette syndrome. In Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (eds Friedhoff, A. J. & Chase, T. N.), Advances in Neurology, Vol. 35. New York: Raven Press.
O'Brien, J. A. (1883) Latah. Journal of the British Asiatic Society, 1, 381.
O'Quinn, A. N. & Thompson, R. J. (1980) Tourette's syndrome: an expanded view. Pediatrics, 66, 420424.
Paolucci, S., Ciani, S., Buttinelli, C, et al (1984) Treatment of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome with depot neuroleptics. Acta Neurologica (Napoli), 6, 222224.
Patrick, H. T. (1905) Convulsive tic. Journal of the American Medical Association, 44, 437442.
Pauls, D. L., Cohen, D. J., Heimbuch, R., et al (1981) Familial pattern and transmission of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and multiple tics. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 10911093.
Pauls, D. L., & Leckman, J. F. (1986) The inheritance of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome and associated behaviors. New England Journal of Medicine, 315, 993997.
Pauls, D. L., Leckman, J. F., Towbin, K. E., et al (1986a) A possible genetic relationship exists between Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 22, 730733.
Pauls, D. L., Towbin, K. E., Leckman, J. F., et al (1986b) Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 11801182.
Pauls, D. L., Hurst, C. R., Kruger, S. D., et al (1986c) Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome and attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 11771179.
Pauls, D. L., Cohen, D. J., Kidd, K. K., et al (1988) The Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (letter to the editor). American Journal of Human Genetics, 43, 206209.
Pitman, R. K. (1987) Pierre Janet on obsessive–compulsive disorder (1903). Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 226232.
Pollack, M. A., Cohen, N. L. & Friedhoff, A. J. (1977) Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: familial occurrence and precipitation by methylphenidate therapy. Archives of Neurology, 34, 630632.
Prabhakaran, N. (1970) A case of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome with some observations on aetiology and treatment. British Journal of Psychiatry, 116, 539541.
Price, R. A., Pauls, D. L. & Caine, E. D. (1984) Pedigree and segregation analysis of clinically defined subgroups of Tourette syndrome. American Journal of Human Genetics, 36, 178s.
Price, R. A., Kidd, K. K., Cohen, D. J., et al (1985) A twin study of Tourette syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 815820.
Pulst, S. M., Walshe, T. M. & Romero, J. A. (1983) Carbon monoxide poisoning with features of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. Archives of Neurology, 40, 443444.
Pushkov, V. V. (1986) O Lechenii sindroma turetta. Zhurnal Nevropatologii I Psikhiatrii Imeni S. S. Korsakova (Moskva), 86, 14761479.
Rapp, D. J. (1986) Allergy and Tourette's syndrome. Annals of Allergy, 56, 507.
Regeur, L., Pakkenberg, B., Fog, R., et al (1986) Clinical features and long-term treatment with pimozide in 65 patients with Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 49, 791795.
Reid, A. H. (1984) Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in mental handicap. Journal of Medical Deficiency Research, 28, 8183.
Richardson, E. P. (1982) Neuropathological studies of Tourette syndrome. In Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (eds Friedhoff, A. J. & Chase, T. N.), Advances in Neurology, Vol. 35. New York: Raven Press.
Robertson, M., Evans, K., Robinson, A., et al (1987) Abnormalities of copper in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Biological Psychiatry, 22, 968978.
Robertson, M., Trimble, M. R. & Lees, A. J. (1988) The psychopathology of the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: a phenomenological analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 383390.
Robertson, M., Trimble, M. R. & Lees, A. J. (1989) Self-injurous behaviour and the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. A clinical study and review of the literature. Psychological Medicine (in press).
Ross, M. S. & Moldofsky, H. (1978) A comparison of pimozide and haloperidol in the treatment of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 585587.
Sacks, O. W. (1982) Acquired Tourettism in adult life. In Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (eds Friedhoff, A. J. & Chase, T. N.), Advances in Neurology, Vol. 35. New York: Raven Press.
Saint-Hilaire, M. J., Saint-Hilaire, J. M. & Granger, L. (1986) Jumping Frenchmen of Maine. Neurology, 36, 12691271.
Sandyk, R. (1985) The effects of naloxone in Tourette's syndrome. Annals of Neurology, 18, 367368.
Sandyk, R. (1986) Tourette syndrome: successful treatment with clonidine and oxycodone. Journal of Neurology, 233, 178179.
Savicki, V. & Carlin, A. S. (1972) Behavioral treatment of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. International Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 1, 97109.
Schelkunov, E. L., Kenunen, O. G., Pushkov, V. V., et al (1986) Heart rate, blood pressure regulation and neurotransmitter balance in Tourette's syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 25, 645652.
Seeman, M. V., Patel, J. & Pyke, J. (1981) Tardive dyskinesia with Tourette-like syndrome. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 42, 357358.
Seignot, M. J. N. (1961) Un cas de maladie des tics de Gilles de la Tourette guéri par le R-1625. Annatls Medico-Psychologiques (Paris), 119, 578579.
Shaenboen, M. J., Nigro, M. A. & Martocci, R. J. (1984) Colpocephali and Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. Archives of Neurology, 41, 1023.
Shafii, M. (1986) The effects of sympathomimetic and antihistaminic agents on chronic motor tics and Tourette's disorder. New England Journal of Medicine, 315, 1228.
Shapiro, A. K., Shapiro, E. & Wayne, H. L. (1973) The symptomatology and diagnosis of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. Journal of American Academic Child Psychiatry, 12, 702723.
Shapiro, A. K., & Shapiro, E. (1982a) Tourette syndrome: history and present status. In Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (eds Friedhoff, A. J. & Chase, T. N.), Advances in Neurology, Vol. 35. New York: Raven Press.
Shapiro, A. K., & Shapiro, E. (1982b) An update on Tourette syndrome. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 36, 379389.
Shapiro, A. K., Shapiro, E. & Eisenkraft, G. (1983) Treatment of Tourette disorder with penfluridol. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 24, 327331.
Shapiro, E. & Shapiro, A. K. (1986) Semiology, nosology and criteria for tic disorders. Revue Neurologique (Paris), 142, 824832.
Shenken, L. (1984) Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. New Zealand Medical Journal, 97, 51.
Silverstein, F., Smith, C. B. & Johnston, M. V. (1985) Effect of clonidine on platelet alpha 2-adrenoreceptors and plasma norepinephrine of children with Tourette syndrome. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 27, 793799.
Singer, H. S., Gammon, K. & Quaskey, S. (1986) Haloperidol, fluphenazine and clonidine in Tourette syndrome: controversies in treatment. Pediatric Neuroscience, 12, 7174.
Smith, R. A. (1980) Inheritance and epidemiology of headache. In Wolffs Headache and other Head Pain, 4th edn (ed. Dalessio, D. J.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Stahl, S. M. (1980) Tardive Tourette syndrome in an autistic patient after long-term neuroleptic administration. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 12671269.
Stahl, S. M. & Berger, P. A. (1981) Physostigmine in Tourette syndrome: evidence for cholinergic underactivity. American Journal of Psychiatry, 138, 240242.
Stefl, M. E. (1984) Mental health needs associated with Tourette syndrome. American Journal of Public Health, 74, 13101313.
Stefl, M. E. & Rubin, M. (1985) Tourette syndrome in the classroom: special problems, special needs. Journal of School Health, 55, 7275.
Stevens, H. (1964) The syndrome of Gilles de la Tourette and its treatment: report of a case. Medical Annals of the District of Columbia, 33, 277279.
Stefl, M. E. (1971) Gilles de la Tourette and his syndrome by serendipity. American Journal of Psychiatry, 128, 489492.
Storms, L. (1985) Massed negative practice as a behavioral treatment for Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 39, 277281.
Takevchi, K., Yamashita, M., Morikiyo, M. et al (1986) Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome and schizophrenia. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174, 247248.
Tansey, M. A. (1986) A simple and complex tic (Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome): their response to EEG sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback training. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 4, 9197.
Tiller, J. W. (1978) Brief family therapy for childhood tic syndrome. Family Process, 17, 217223.
Tolosa, E. S., Montserrat, L. & Bayes, A. (1986) Reduction of brainstem interneuron excitability during voluntary tic inhibition in Tourette's syndrome. Neurology, 36, (Suppl. 1), 118119.
Turpin, G. C. H. (1982) Behavioural management of Gilles de la Tourette's and multiple tic syndromes. MPhil thesis, University of London.
Uhr, S. B., Pruitt, B., Berger, P. A., et al (1986) Improvement of symptoms in Tourette syndrome by piquindone, a novel dopamine-2 receptor antagonist. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 1, 216220.
Van de Weterino, B. J. M., Martens, C. M. C, Fortoens, C., et al (1985) Late components of the auditory evoked potentials in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Clinics in Neurology and Neurosurgery, 87, 181186.
Van de Weterino, B. J. M., Cohen, A. P., Minderaa, R. B., et al (1988) Het Syndroom van Gilles de la Tourette: Klinische Bevindingen. Nederlands Tijdschrifte voor Geneeskunde, 132, 2125.
Van Woert, M. J., Jutkowitz, R., Rosenbaum, D., et al (1976) Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome: biochemical approaches. In The Basal Ganglia (ed. Yahr, M. D.). New York: Raven Press.
de Veaugh-Geiss, J. (1980) Tardive Tourette syndrome. Neurology, 30, 562563.
Verma, N. P., Syrigou-Papavasiliou, A. & Lewitt, P. A. (1986) Electroencephalographic findings in unmedicated, neurologically and intellectually intact Tourette syndrome patients. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 64, 1220.
Vieregge, P. (1987) Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome in monozygotic twins. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 50, 15541556.
Walsh, T. L., Lavenstein, B., Licamele, W. L., et al (1986) Calcium antagonists in the treatment of Tourette's disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 14671468.
Waserman, J., Lal, S. & Gauthier, S. (1983) Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome in monozygotic twins. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 46, 7577.
Wassman, E. R., Eldridge, R., Abuzzahab, S., et al (1978) Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: clinical and genetic studies in a midwestern city. Neurology, 28, 304307.
Weiden, P. & Bruun, R. (1987) Worsening of Tourette's disorder due to neuroleptic-induced akathisia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 504505.
Wilson, R. S., Garron, D. C, Tanner, C. M., et al (1982) Behavior disturbance in children with Tourette syndrome. In Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (eds Friedhoff, A. J. & Chase, T. N.), Advances in Neurology, Vol. 35. New York: Raven Press.
Woody, R. C. & Laney, M. (1986) Tics and Tourette's syndrome: a review. Journal of the Arkansas Medical Society, 83, 5355.
Yaryura-Tobias, J. A., Neziroglu, F., Howard, S., et al (1981) Clinical aspects of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Journal of Orthomolecular Psychiatry, 10, 263268.
Yaryura-Tobias, J. A., Neziroglu, F., (1983) Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders, Pathogenesis-Diagnosis-Treatment. New York & Basel: Marcel Dekker.
Zausmer, D. M. & Dewey, M. E. (1987) Tics and heredity. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 628634.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

The Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome: the Current Status

  • Mary M. Robertson (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.

The Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome: the Current Status

  • Mary M. Robertson (a1)
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests