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Economic burden of drug dependency: Social costs incurred by drug users at intake to the National Treatment Outcome Research Study

  • Andrew Healey (a1), Martin Knapp (a2), Jack Astin (a1), Michael Gossop (a3), John Marsden (a4), Duncan Stewart (a5), Petra Lehmann (a5) and Christine Godfrey (a5)...



The use of illegal drugs is seen as & major social problem. The social costs can be high.


Self-report data from interviews at intake to the National Treatment Outcome Research Study (NTORS) for 1075 drug users and cost data from various sources were used to estimate criminal behaviour and health and addiction service costs for & 12-month period. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to analyse cost variations.


Total costs for one year for the drug users amounted to over $12 million, the majority attributable to self-reported criminal behaviour. Social costs were positively related to & variety of factors including instability in living circumstances, amount of heroin used and whether or not drugs were taken intravenously.


The study clearly demonstrates the economic and social burden associated with heavy drug users and highlights the need for further investigations into the costs and benefits of policies that can reduce these social costs.


Corresponding author

A. Healey, Centre for the Economics of Mental Health, Institute of Psychiatry, 7 Windsor Walk, London SE5 8BB


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See related paper pp. 166–171, this issue



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Economic burden of drug dependency: Social costs incurred by drug users at intake to the National Treatment Outcome Research Study

  • Andrew Healey (a1), Martin Knapp (a2), Jack Astin (a1), Michael Gossop (a3), John Marsden (a4), Duncan Stewart (a5), Petra Lehmann (a5) and Christine Godfrey (a5)...
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