Barua, A, Ghosh, MK, Kar, N, Basilio, MA. Prevalence of depressive disorders in the elderly. Ann Saudi Med
2011; 31: 620–4.
Lamers, F, Jonkers, CCM, Bosma, H, Penninx, BW, Knottnerus, JA, van Eijk, JT. Summed score of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was a reliable and valid method for depression screening in chronically ill elderly patients. J Clin Epidemiol
2008; 61: 679–87.
Dennis, M, Kadri, A, Coffy, J. Depression in older people in the general hospital: a systematic review of screening instruments. Age Aging
2012; 41: 148–54.
Azulai, A, Walsh, CA. Screening for geriatric depression in residential care facilities: a systematic narrative review. J Gerontol Soc Work
2015; 58: 20–45.
Phelan, E, Williams, B, Meeker, K, Bonn, K, Frederick, J, Logerfo, J, et al. A study of the diagnostic accuracy of the PHQ-9 in primary care elderly. BMC Fam Pract
2010; 11: 63.
Pyne, JM, Patterson, TL, Kaplan, RM, Gillin, JC, Koch, WL. Grant I, et al. Assessment of the quality of life of patients with major depression. Psychiatr Serv
1997; 48: 224–30.
Creed, F, Morgan, R, Fiddler, M, Marshall, S, Guthrie, E, House, A. Depression and anxiety impair health-related quality of life and are associated with increased costs in general medical inpatients. Psychosomatics
2002; 43: 302–9.
Pignone, MP, Gaynes, BN, Rushton, JL, Burchell, CM, Orleans, CT, Mulrow, CD, et al. Screening for depression in adults: a summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med
2002; 136: 765–76.
O'Connor, EA, Whitlock, EP, Gaynes, B, Beil, TL. Screening for Depression in Adults and Older Adults in Primary Care: An Updated Systematic Review.
. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2009.
O'Connor, EA, Whitlock, EP, Beil, TL, Gaynes, BN. Screening for depression in adult patients in primary care settings: a systematic evidence review. Ann Intern Med
2009; 151: 793–803.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for depression in adults: recommendation statement. Am Fam Physician
2010; 82: 976–9.
Mojtabai, R. Diagnosing depression in older adults in primary care. N Engl J Med
2014; 370: 1180–2
Watson, LC, Pignone, MP. Screening accuracy for late-life depression in primary care: a systematic review. J Fam Pract
2003; 52: 956–64.
Yesavage, JA, Brink, TL, Rose, TL, Lum, O, Huang, V, Adey, M. Development and validation of the geriatric depression scale: a preliminary report. J Psychiatr Res
1983; 17: 37–49.
Allen, N, Ames, D, Ashby, D, Bennetts, K, Tuckwell, V, West, C. A brief sensitive screening instrument for depression in late life. Age Ageing
1994; 23: 213–9.
Alexopoulos, GA, Abrams, RC, Young, RC, Shamoian, CA. Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Biol Psychiatry
1988; 23: 271–84.
O'Connor, EA, Rossom, RC, Henninger, M, Groom, HC, Burda, BU, Henderson, JT, et al. Screening for Depression in Adults: An Updated Systematic Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.
. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2016.
Beck, AT, Ward, CH, Mendelson, M, Mock, J, Erbaugh, J. An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry
1961; 4: 561–71.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Quick Reference Guide: Depression.
Whooley, MA, Avins, AL, Miranda, J, Browner, WS. Case-finding instruments for depression. Two questions are as good as many. J Gen Intern Med
1997; 12: 439–45.
Arroll, B, Khin, N, Kerse, N. Screening for depression in primary care with two verbally asked questions: cross sectional study. BMJ
2003; 327: 1144–6.
Mitchell, AJ, Meader, N, Davies, E, Clover, K, Carter, GL, Loscalzo, MJ, et al. Meta-analysis of screening and case finding tools for depression in cancer: evidence based recommendations for clinical practice on behalf of the Depression in Cancer Care consensus group. J Affect Disord
2012; 140: 149–60.
Meader, N, Mitchell, AJ, Chew-Graham, C, et al. Case identification of depression in patients with chronic physical health problems: a diagnostic accuracy meta-analysis of 113 studies. Br J Gen Pract
2011; 61: 808–20.
Sheikh, JI, Yesavage, JA. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS): recent evidence and development of a shorter version. Clin Gerontol
1986; 5: 165–73.
Radloff, LS. The CES-D scale: a self-administrated depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas
1977; 1: 385–401.
Bird, A, Macdonald, A, Mann, AH, Philpot, MP. Preliminary experience with the SelfCARE(D): a self-rating depression questionnaire for use in elderly, non-institutionalized subjects. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
1987; 2: 31–8.
Moher, D, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J, Altman, DG, Group, PRISMA. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Ann Intern Med
2009; 151: 264–9.
Leeflang MM, Deeks JJ, Gatsonis C, Bossuyt PMM, Cochrane Diagnostic Test Accuracy Working Group. Systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy. Ann Intern Med
2008; 149: 889–97.
Macaskill, P, Gatsonis, C, Deeks, JJ, et al. Analysing and presenting results. In Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Diagnostic Test Accuracy Version 1.0 (eds Deeks, JJ, Bossuyt, PM, Gatsonis, C). The Cochrane Collaboration, 2010.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn, revised) (DSM-IV-TR).
American Psychiatric Association, 2000.
World Health Organization. The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Diagnostic Criteria for Research.
Copeland, JRM, Kelleher, MJ, Kellett, J, Gourlay, AJ, Gurland, BJ, Fleiss, JL, et al. A semi- structured interview for the assessment of diagnosis and mental state in the elderly. Psychol Med
1976; 6: 439–49.
Copeland, JR, Dewey, ME, Henderson, AS, Kay, DW, Neal, CD, Harrison, MA, et al. The Geriatric Mental State (GMS) used in the community: replication studies of the computerized diagnosis AGECAT. Psychol Med
1988; 18: 219–23.
olin, JT, Katz, IR, Meyers, BS, Schneider, LS, Lebowitz, BD. Provisional diagnostic criteria for depression of Alzheimer disease: rationale and background. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
2002; 10: 129–41.
Whiting, PF, Rutjes, AW, Westwood, ME, Mallett, S, Deeks, JJ, Reitsma, JB, et al. QUADAS-2: a revised tool for the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies. Ann Intern Med
2011; 155: 529–36.
Reitsma, JB, Glas, AS, Rutjes, AW, Scholten, RJ, Bossuyt, PM, Zwinderman, AH. Bivariate analysis of sensitivity and specificity produces informative summary measures in diagnostic reviews. J Clin Epidemiol
2005; 58: 982–90.
Glas, AS, Lijmer, JG, Prins, MH, et al. The diagnostic odds ratio: a single indicator of test performance. J Clin Epidemiol
2003; 56: 1129–35.
Rutter, CM, Gatsonis, CA. A hierarchical regression approach to meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy evaluations. Stat Med
2001; 20: 2865–84.
Swets, JA. Measuring the accuracy of diagnostic systems. Science
1988; 240: 1285–93.
DerSimonian, R, Laird, N. Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials
1986; 7: 177–88.
Rosman, AS, Korsten, MA. Application of summary receiver operating characteristics (sROC) analysis to diagnostic clinical testing. Adv Med Sci
2007; 52: 76–82.
Hamilton, M. A rating scale for depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry
1960; 23: 56–62.
Montgomery, SA, Åsberg, M. A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change. Br J Psychiatry
1979; 134: 382–9.
Robison, J, Gruman, C, Gaztambide, S, Blank, K. Screening for depression in middle-aged and older Puerto Rican Primary care patients. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci
2002; 57: 308–14.
Baillon, S, Dennis, M, Lo, N, Lindesay, J. Screening for depression in Parkinson's disease: the performance of two screening questions. Age Ageing
2014; 43: 200–5.
Blank, K, Gruman, C, Robison, JT. Case-finding for depression in elderly people: balancing ease of administration with validity in varied treatment settings. J Gerontol
2004; 59A: 378–84.
Payne, A, Barry, S, Creedon, B, Stone, C, Sweeney, C, O'Brien, T, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of a Two-Question Screening tool for depression in a specialist palliative care unit. Palliat Med
2007; 21: 193–8.
McManus, D, Pipkin, SS, Whooley, MA. Screening for depression for patients with coronary heart disease (data from Heart and Soul Study). Am J Cardiol
2005; 96: 1076–81.
Esiwe, C, Baillon, S, Rajkonwar, A, Lindesay, J, Lo, N, Dennis, M. Screening for depression in older adults on an acute medical ward: the validity of NICE guidance in using two questions. Age Ageing
2015; 44: 771–5.
Kroenke, K, Spitzer, RL, Williams, JB. The Patient Health Questionnaire-2: validity of a two-item depression screener. Med Care
2003; 41: 1284–92.
Mitchell, AJ, Coyne, JC. Do ultra-short screening instruments accurately detect depression in primary care? A pooled analysis and meta-analysis of 22 studies. Br J Gen Pract
2007; 57: 144–51.