Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Cognitive decline following psychosis onset: Data from the PACE clinic

  • Stephen J. Wood (a1), Warrick J. Brewer (a2), Penny Koutsouradis (a3), Lisa J. Phillips (a4), Shona M. Francey (a2), Tina M. Proffitt (a4), Alison R. Yung (a5), Henry J. Jackson (a1), Patrick D. McGorry (a1) and Christos Pantelis (a1)...

Abstract

Background

The origin of cognitive impairments in psychotic disorders is still unclear. Although some deficits are apparent prior to the onset of frank illness, it is unknown if they progress

Aims

To investigate whether cognitive function declined over the transition to psychosis in a group of ultra-high risk individuals

Method

Participants consisted of two groups: controls (n = 17) and individuals at ultra-high risk for development of psychosis (n = 16). Seven of the latter group later developed psychosis. Neuropsychological testing was conducted at baseline and again after at least a 12-month interval

Results

Both the Visual Reproduction sub-test of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and Trail-Making Test B showed a decline over the follow-up period that was specific to the group who became psychotic. In addition, both high-risk groups showed a decline in digit span performance. No other task showed significant change over time

Conclusions

These preliminary data suggest that as psychosis develops there may be a specific decline in visual memory and attentional set-shifting, reflecting impairments in efficient organisation of visual stimuli. This may be caused by either the illness itself or treatment with antipsychotic medication

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Cognitive decline following psychosis onset
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Cognitive decline following psychosis onset
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Cognitive decline following psychosis onset
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Dr Stephen Wood, Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, c/o National Neuroscience Facility, 161 Barry Street, Carlton South, VIC 3053 Australia. tel: +61 3 8344 1877; fax: +61 3 9348 0469; email: sjwood@unimelb.edu.au

Footnotes

Hide All

Declaration of interest

None.

Funding detailed in Acknowledgements.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Addington, J. Brooks, D. J. & Addington, D. (2003) Cognitive functioning in first episode psychosis: initial presentation. Schizophrenia Research, 62, 5964.
Addington, J. Saeedi, H. & Addington, D. (2005) The course of cognitive functioning in first episode psychosis: Changes over time and impact on outcome. Schizophrenia Research, 78, 3543.
Adjutant General's Office (1944) Army Individual Test. Manual of Directions and Scoring. Washington DC: War Department.
American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnositic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn). APA.
Benton, A. & Hamsher, K. (1983) Multilingual Aphasia Examination. AJA Associates.
Bilder, R. M. Goldman, R. S. Robinson, D. et al (2000) Neuropsychology of first-episode schizophrenia: Initial characterization and clinical correlates. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 549559.
Brewer, W. J. Francey, S. M. Wood, S. J. et al (2005) Memory impairments identified in people at ultra high-risk for psychosis who later develop first episode psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 7178.
Brewer, W. J. Wood, S. J. Phillips, L. J. et al (2006) Generalized and specific cognitive performance in clinical high-risk cohorts: A review highlighting potential vulnerability markers for psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 32, 538555.
Conklin, H. M. & Lacono, W. G. (2003) At issue: assessment of schizophrenia: getting closer to the cause. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 29, 405411.
Eichenbaum, H. (1999) The hippocampus and mechanisms of declarative memory. Behavioural Brain Research, 103, 123133.
Hoff, A. L. Sakuma, M. Wieneke, M. et al (1999) Longitudinal neuropsychological follow-up study of patients with first-episode schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 13361341.
Hoff, A. L. Svetina, C. Shields, G. et al (2005) Ten year longitudinal study of neuropsychological functioning subsequent to a first episode of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 78, 2734.
Job, D. E. Whalley, H. Johnstone, E. C. et al (2005) Grey matter changes over time in high risk subjects developing schizophrenia. NeuroImage, 25, 10231030.
Johnstone, E. C. Cosway, R. & Lawrie, S. M. (2002) Distinguishing characteristics of subjects with good and poor early outcome in the Edinburgh High-Risk Study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 43, S26S29.
Kaufman, A. S. (1990) Assessing Adolescent and Adult Intelligence. Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Keefe, R. S. Young, C. A. Rock, S. L. et al (2006) One-year double-blind study of the neurocognitive efficacy of olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 81, 115.
Lencz, T. Smith, C. W. McLaughlin, D. B. et al (2006) Generalized and specific neurocognitive deficits in prodromal schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 59, 863871.
McGorry, P. D. Yung, A. R. Phillips, L. J. et al (2002) Randomized controlled trial of interventions designed to reduce the risk of progression to first-episode psychosis in a clinical sample with subthreshold symptoms. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 921928.
Nelson, H. E. & Willison, J. R. (1991) Restandardisation of the NART against the WAIS–R. In National Adult Reading Test (NART) Test Manual (ed. Nelson, H. E.), pp. 1323. nFER-Nelson.
Niemi, L. T. Suvisaari, J. M. Tuulio-Henriksson, A. et al (2003) Childhood developmental abnormalities in schizophrenia: evidence from high-risk studies. Schizophrenia Research, 60, 239258.
Pantelis, C. Velakoulis, D. McGorry, P. D. et al (2003) Neuroanatomical abnormalities before and after onset of psychosis: a cross-sectional and longitudinal MRI study. Lancet, 361, 281288.
Reichenberg, A. Weiser, M. Rapp, M. A. et al (2005) Elaboration on premorbid intellectual performance in schizophrenia: Premorbid intellectual decline and risk for schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 12971304.
Reilly, J. L. Harris, M. S. Keshavan, M. S. et al (2006) Adverse effects of risperidone on spatial working memory in first-episode schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 11891197.
Rey, A. (1941) Psychological examination of traumatic encephalopathy. Archives de Psychologie, 28, 286340.
Wechsler, D. (1981) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Revised Manual. Psychological Corporation.
Wechsler, D. (1987) Wechsler Memory Scale – Revised. Psychological Corporation.
Whyte, M.-C. Brett, C. Harrison, L. K. et al (2006) Neuropsychological performance over time in people at high risk of developing schizophrenia and controls. Biological Psychiatry, 59, 730739.
Willshire, D. Kinsella, G. & Prior, M. (1991) Estimating WAIS-RIQ from the National Adult Reading Test: a cross-validation. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13, 204216.
Yung, A. R. Phillips, L. J. Yuen, H. P. et al (2003) Psychosis prediction: 12 month follow-up of a high risk (‘prodromal’) group. Schizophrenia Research, 60, 2132.
Yung, A. R. Phillips, L. J. Yuen, H. P. et al (2004) Risk factors for psychosis in an ultra high-risk group: psychopathology and clinical features. Schizophrenia Research, 67, 131142.

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Cognitive decline following psychosis onset: Data from the PACE clinic

  • Stephen J. Wood (a1), Warrick J. Brewer (a2), Penny Koutsouradis (a3), Lisa J. Phillips (a4), Shona M. Francey (a2), Tina M. Proffitt (a4), Alison R. Yung (a5), Henry J. Jackson (a1), Patrick D. McGorry (a1) and Christos Pantelis (a1)...
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *