Brewin, CR, Andrews, B, Valentine, JD. Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. J Consult Clin Psychol
2000; 68: 748–66.
Koenen, KC, Moffit, TE, Poulin, R, Martin, J, Caspi, A. Early childhood factors associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder: results from a longitudinal birth cohort. Psychol Med
2007; 37: 181–92.
Scott, KM, Smith, DR, Ellis, PM. Prospectively ascertained childhood maltreatment and its associations with DSM-IV mental disorders in young adults. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2010; 67: 712–9.
Bremmer, JD, Southwick, SM, Johnson, DR, Yehuda, R, Charney, DS. Childhood physical abuse and combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam veterans. Am J Psychiatry
1993; 150: 235–9.
Schnurr, PP, Lunney, CA, Sengupta, A. Risk factors for the development versus maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder. J Trauma Stress
2004; 17: 85–95.
McLaughlin, KA, Conron, KJ, Koenen, KC, Gilman, SE. Childhood adversity, adult stressful life events, and risk of past-year psychiatric disorder: a test of the stress sensitization hypothesis in a population-based sample of adults. Psychol Med
2010; 40: 1647–58.
Myers, B, McLaughlin, KA, Wang, S, Blanco, C, Stein, DJ. Associations between childhood adversity, adult stressful life events, and past-year drug use disorders in the National Epidemiological Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Psychol Addict Behav
2014; 28: 1117–26.
Roberts, AL, McLaughlin, KA, Conron, KJ, Koenen, KC. Adult stressors, history of childhood adversity, and risk of perpetration of intimate partner violence among men and women. Am J Prevent Med
2010; 40: 128–38.
Keyes, KM, Shmulewitz, D, Greenstein, E, McLaughlin, KA, Wall, M, Aharonovich, E, et al. Exposure to the Lebanon War of 2006 and effects on alcohol use disorders: the moderating role of childhood maltreatment. Drug Alcohol Depend
2014; 134: 296–303.
Hammen, C, Henry, R, Daley, SE. Depression and sensitization to stressors among young women as a function of childhood adversity. J Consult Clin Psychol
2000; 68: 782–7.
Harkness, KL, Bruce, AE, Lumley, MN. The role of childhood abuse and neglect in the sensitization to stressful life events in adolescent depression. J Abnorm Psychol
2006; 115: 730–41.
Espejo, EP, Hammen, C, Connolly, NP, Brennan, PA, Najman, JM, Bor, W. Stress sensitization and adolescent depressive severity as a function of childhood adversity: a link to anxiety disorders. J Abnorm Child Psychol
2006; 35: 287–99.
Kessler, RC, Davis, CG, Kendler, KS. Childhood adversity and adult psychiatric disorder in the US National Comorbidity Survey. Psychol Med
1997; 27: 1101–19.
Kessler, RC, McLaughlin, KA, Green, JG, Gruber, MJ, Sampson, NA, Zaslavsky, AM, et al. Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Br J Psychiatry
2010; 197: 378–85.
Green, JG, McLaughlin, KA, Berglund, P, Gruber, MJ, Sampson, NA, Zaslavsky, AM, et al. Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) I: associations with first onset of DSM-IV disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2010; 62: 113–23.
McLaughlin, KA, Green, JG, Gruber, MJ, Sampson, NA, Zaslavsky, A, Kessler, RC. Childhood adversities and first onset of psychiatric disorders in a national sample of adolescents. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2012; 69: 1151–60.
Breslau, N, Kessler, RC, Chilcoat, HD, Schultz, LR, Davis, GC, Andreski, P. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in the community: the 1996 Detroit Area Survey of Trauma. Arch Gen Psychiatry
1998; 55: 626–32.
Kessler, RC, Sonnega, A, Bromet, E, Hughes, M, Nelson, CB. Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry
1995; 52: 1048–60.
Liu, H, Petukhova, M, Sampson, NA, Aguilar-Gaxiola, S, Alonso, J, Andrade, LH, et al. Association of DSM-IV post-traumatic stress disorder with traumatic experience type and history in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. JAMA Psychiatry
2017; 74: 270–81.
The World Bank. Data: Countries and Economies. The World Bank Group, 2016.
Heeringa, SG, Wells, EJ, Hubbard, F, Mneimneh, ZN, Chiu, WT, Sampson, NA, et al. Sample designs and sampling procedures. In The WHO World Mental Health Surveys: Global Perspectives on the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (eds Kessler, RC, Üstun, TB): 14–32. Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Harkness, J, Pennell, B-P, Villar, A, Gebler, N, Aguilar-Gaxiola, S, Bilgen, I. Translation procedures and translation assessment in the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. In The WHO World Mental Health Surveys: Global Perspectives on the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (eds Kessler, RC, Üstun, TB): 91–113. Cambridge University Press, 2008.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) (DSM-IV). APA, 1994.
Benjet, C, Bromet, E, Karam, EG, Kessler, RC, McLaughlin, KA, Ruscio, AM, et al. The epidemiology of traumatic event exposure worldwide: results from the World Mental Health Survey Consortium. Psychol Med
2016; 46: 327–43.
Kessler, RC, Üstun, TB. The World Mental Health (WHM) Survey Initiative Version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Int J Methods Psychiatr Res
2004; 13: 93–121.
McLaughlin, KA, Koenen, KC, Friedman, MJ, Ruscio, AM, Karam, EG, Shahly, V, et al. Subthreshold posttraumatic stress disorder in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Biol Psychiatry
2015; 77: 375–84.
Haro, JM, Arbabzadeh-Bouchez, S, Brugha, TS, di Girolamo, G, Guyer, M, Jin, R, et al. Concordance of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) with standardized clinical assessments in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res
2006; 15: 167–80.
Gardner, M, Altman, D. Statistics with Confidence: Confidence Intervals and Statistical Guidelines, BMJ Books, 2000.
Felitti, VJ, Anda, RF, Nordenberg, D, Williamson, DF, Spitz, AM, Edwards, V, et al. Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. Am J Prevent Med
1998; 14: 245–58.
Straus, MA. Measuring intrafamily conflict and violence: the Conflict Tactics (CT) Scales. J Marriage Fam
1979; 41: 75–88.
Courtney, ME, Piliavin, I, Grogan-Kaylor, A, Nesmith, A. Foster Youth Transitions to Adulthood: A Longitudinal View of Youth Leaving Care. Institute for Research on Poverty, 1998.
Endicott, J, Andreasen, N, Spitzer, RL. Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria. Biometrics Research, NY State Psychiatric Institute, 1978.
Kendler, KS, Silberg, JL, Neale, MC, Kessler, RC, Heath, AC, Eaves, LJ. The family history method: whose psychiatric history is measured?
Am J Psychiatry
1991; 148: 1501–4.
Klebanoff, MA, Cole, SR. Use of multiple imputatio in the epidemiologic literature. Am J Epidemiol
2008; 168: 355–7.
Wolter, KM. Introduction to Variance Estimation. Springer-Verlag, 1985.
McLaughlin, KA, Gadermann, AM, Hwang, I, Sampson, NA, Al-Hamzawi, A, Andrade, LH, et al. Parent psychopathology and offspring mental disorders: results from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Br J Psychiatry
2012; 200: 290–9.
Caspi, A, Houts, RM, Belsky, DW, Goldman-Mellor, SJ, Harrington, H, Israel, S, et al. The p factor: one general psychopathology factor in the structure of psychiatric disorders?
Clin Psychol Sci
2014; 2: 119–37.
Rudolph, KD, Flynn, M. Childhood adversity and youth depression: influence of gender and pubertal status. Develop Psychopathol
2007; 19: 497–521.
Breslau, N, Koenen, KC, Luo, Z, Agnew-Blais, J, Swanson, S, Houts, RM, et al. Childhood maltreatment, juvenile disorders and adult post-traumatic stress disorder: a prospective investigation. Psychol Med
2014; 44: 1937–45.
Moore, SA, Zoellner, LA. Overgeneral autobiographical memory and traumatic events: an evaluative review. Psychol Bull
2007; 133: 419–37.
Heleniak, C, Jenness, J, Van der Stoep, A, McCauley, E, McLaughlin, KA. Childhood maltreatment exposure and disruptions in emotion regulation: a transdiagnostic pathway to adolescent internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Cogn Ther Res
2016; 40: 394–415.
Hennessy, KD, Rabideau, GJ, Cicchetti, D, Cummings, EM. Responses of physically abused and nonabused children to different forms of interadult anger. Child Develop
1994; 65: 815–28.
Wichers, M, Schrijvers, D, Geschwind, N, Jacobs, N, Myin-Germeys, I, Thiery, E, et al. Mechanisms of gene-environment interactions in depression: evidence that genes potentiate multiple sources of adversity. Psychol Med
2009; 39: 1077–86.
McCrory, EJ, De Brito, SA, Kelly, PA, Bird, G, Sebastian, CL, Mechelli, A, et al. Amygdala activation in maltreated children during pre-attentive emotional processing. Br J Psychiatry
2013; 202: 269–76.
McCrory, EJ, De Brito, SA, Sebastian, CL, Mechelli, A, Bird, G, Kelly, PA, et al. Heightened neural reactivity to threat in child victims of family violence. Curr Biol
2011; 21: R947–8.
Suzuki, H, Luby, JL, Botteron, KN, Dietrich, R, McAvoy, MP, Barch, DM. Early life stress and trauma and enhanced limbic activation to emotionally valenced faces in depressed and healthy children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
2014; 53: 800–13.
McLaughlin, KA, Peverill, M, Gold, AL, Alves, S, Sheridan, MA. Child maltreatment and neural systems underlying emotion regulation. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
2015; 54: 753–62.
Feldman, R, Granat, A, Pariente, C, Kanety, H, Kuint, J, Gilboa-Schechtman, E. Maternal depression and anxiety across the postpartum year and infant social engagement, fear regulation, and stress reactivity. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
2009; 48: 919–27.
Davis, EP, Glynn, LM, Schetter, CD, Hobel, C, Chicz-Demet, A, Sandman, CA. Prenatal exposure to maternal depression and cortisol influences infant temperament. Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
2007; 46: 737–46.
McLaughlin, KA, Busso, DS, Duys, A, Green, JG, Alves, S, Way, M, et al. Amygdala response to negative stimuli predicts PTSD symptom onset following a terrorist attack. Depress Anxiety
2014; 10: 834–42.
Admon, R, Lubin, G, Stern, O, Rosenberg, K, Sela, L, Ben-Ami, H, et al. Human vulnerability to stress depends on amygdala's predisposition and hippocampal plasticity. Proc Natl Acad Sci
2009; 106: 14120–5.
Mather, M, Canli, T, English, T, Whitfield, S, Wais, P, Ochsner, K, et al. Amygdala responses to emotionally valenced stimuli in older and younger adults. Psychol Sci
2004; 15: 259–63.
McLaughlin, KA, Sheridan, MA, Lambert, HK. Childhood adversity and neural development: deprivation and threat as distinct dimensions of early experience. Neurosci Biobehav Rev
2014; 47: 578–91.
Jenness, J, Jager-Hyman, S, Heleniak, C, Beck, AT, Sheridan, MA, McLaughlin, KA. Catastrophizing, rumination, and reappraisal prospectively predict adolescent PTSD symptom onset following a terrorist attack. Depress Anxiety
2016; Aug 24 (Epub ahead of print).
Kuyken, W, Watkins, E, Holden, E, Cook, W. Rumination in adolescents at risk for depression. J Affect Disord
2006; 96: 39–47.
Sheikh, MA, Abelsen, B, Olsen, JA. Clarifying associations between childhood adversity, social support, behavioral factors, and mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood: a population-based study. Front Psychol
2016; 7: 727.
Hardt, J, Rutter, M. Validity of adult retrospective reports of adverse childhood experiences: review of the evidence. J Child Psychol Psychiatry
2004; 45: 260–73.
Widom, CS, Shepard, RL. Accuracy of adult recollections of childhood victimization: Part 1. Childhood physical abuse. Psychol Assess
1996; 8: 412–21.
Widom, CS, Morris, S. Accuracy of adult recollections of childhood victimization: Part 2. Childhood sexual abuse. Psychol Assess
1997; 9: 34–46.