Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Cerebrospinal Fluid Vasopressin—Changes in Depression

  • Annette Gjerris (a1), Per Vendsborg (a2), Mogens Hammer (a3), Niels Juel Christensen (a4) and Ole J. Rafaelsen (a5)...

Abstract

Cerebrospinal flud (CSF), thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), CSF-vasopressin (AVP), plasma-AVP, CSF-osmolality, plasma-osmolality, CSF-adrenaline (A) and -noradrenaline (NA) were measured in psychiatric patients and controls. Psychiatric patients were classified according to ICD-9 and grouped into endogenous depression, non-endogenous depression, mania and schizophrenia. The depressive groups were classified according to the Newcastle Rating Scale for Depression 1965. Severity of disease was quantified by BRMES, BRMS and BPRS. No difference in CSF-TRH levels was seen among the different diagnostic groups and controls. A positive correlation between CSF-TRH and CSF-A was demonstrated. CSF-AVP concentrations were significantly lowered in both endogenous and non-endogenous depression; no correlation with CSF-A or -NA was seen. Neither did any difference between plasma levels of AVP, plasma-osmolality or CSF-osmolality appear among the groups investigated.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence

References

Hide All
Akiskal, H. S. & Mckinney, W. T. (1973) Depressive disorders: Towards a unified hypothesis. Science, 18, 2029.
Bech, P., Bolwig, T. G., Kramp, P. & Rafaelsen, O. J. (1979) The Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Scale and the Hamilton Depression Scale —Evaluation of homogeneity and inter-observer reliability. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 59, 420430.
Bech, P., Gjerris, A., Andersen, J., Bøjholm, S., Kramp, P., Bolwig, T. G., Rastrup, M., Clemmesen, L. & Rafaelsen, O. J. (1983) The Melancholia Scale and the Newcastle Scales: Item combination and interobserver-reliability. British Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 5863.
Bech, P. & Rafaelsen, O. J. (1980) The use of rating scales exemplified by a comparison of the Hamilton and the Bech-Rafaelsen Melancholia Scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 62, Suppl. 285, 128132.
Blake, R. D., Dodd, M. J. & Evans, J. G. (1978) Vasopressin in amnesia. Lancet, i, 608.
Blessing, W. W. Sved, A. F. & Reis, D. J. (1982) Destruction of noradrenergic neurons in rabbit brainstem elevates plasma vasopressin, causing hypertension. Science, 217, 661662.
Carney, M. W. P., Roth, M. & Garside, R. F. (1965) The diagnosis of depressive syndromes and prediction of ECT response. British Journal of Psychiatry, 111, 659674.
Christensen, N. J., Gjerris, A., Barry, D. & Rafaelsen, O. J. (1984) Assessment of the activity of the brain catecholamine neuron systems in man. Clinical Neuropharmacology, 7, Suppl. 1, 682683.
Christensen, N. J., Vestergaard, P., Sørensen, T. & Rafaelsen, O. J. (1980) Cerebrospinal fluid adrenaline and noradrenaline in depressed patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 61, 178182.
Coughlan, A. K. & Hollows, S. E. (1984) Use of memory tests in differentiating organic disorder from depression. British Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 164167.
Cronholm, B. & Ottosson, J. O. (1961) Memory functions in endogenous depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 5, 193199.
De Wied, D. (1976) Behavioural effects of intraventricularly administered vasopressin and vasopressin fragments. Life Sciences, 19, 685690.
Doris, P. A. (1984) Vasopressin and central integrative processes. Neuroendocrinology, 38, 7585.
Eysenck, M. W. (1982) Attention and arousal. Berlin: Springer.
Fehm-Wolfsdorf, G., Born, J., Voigt, K.-H. & Fehm, H. L. (1984) Behavioral effects of vasopressin. A single case study. Neuropsychobiology, 11, 4953.
Friedman, A. S. (1964) Minimal effects of severe depression on cognitive functioning. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 69, 237243.
Gjerris, A., Bech, P., Andersen, J., Bojholm, S., Kramp, P., Bolwig, T. G., Rastrup, M., Clemmesen, L. & Rafaelsen, O. J. (1984) The Melancholia Scale, the Newcastle Scales, and the Eighth International Classification of Disease: Interobserver reliability and diagnostic validity. In Biological Psychiatry: Recent Studies (ed. Burrows, G. D.). London: John Libbey & Company Limited, pp. 121125.
Gjerris, A., Jensen, E., Christensen, N. J. & Rafaelsen, O. J. (1981) Adrenaline and noradrenaline in psychiatric disorders. In Biological Psychiatry (eds. Perris, C., Struwe, G. & Jansson, B.). Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, 565568.
Gold, P. W., Goodwin, F. K., Post, R. M., & Robertson, G. L. (1981) Neuroendocrine studies of depressive disorders. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 17, 79.
Gold, P. W., Goodwin, F. K. & Reus, V. I. (1978) Vasopressin in affective illness. Lancet, i, 12331236.
Gold, P. W., Weingartner, H., Ballenger, J. C., Goodwin, F. K. & Post, R. M. (1979) Effects of 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin on behaviour and cognition in primary affective disorder. Lancet, ii, 992994.
Hammer, M. (1978) Radioimmunoassay of 8-argine-vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) in human plasma. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, 38, 707716.
Heshe, J., Röder, E. & Theilgaard, A. (1978) Unilateral and bilateral ECT. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Suppl. 273, 6487.
Johnstone, E. C. & Ferrier, I. N. (1981) Neuroendocrine markers on CNS drug effects. In Methods in Clinical Pharmacology — Central Nervous System (eds. Lader, M. & Richens, A.). London, Basingstoke: The MacMillan Press Ltd., 319.
Kastin, A. J., Ehrensing, R. H., Schalch, D. S. & Andersen, M. S. (1972) Improvement in mental depression with decreased thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Lancet, ii, 740742.
Kirkegaard, C. (1983) Serum thyrotropin responset efter stimulation med thyreotropin-releasing hormon hos patienter med endogen depression. Thesis. Copenhagen: FADL's Forlag.
Kirkegaard, C., Faber, J., Hummer, L. & Ragowski, P. (1979) Increased levels of TRH in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with endogenous depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 4, 227235.
Korsgaard, S. Casey, D. E., Pedersen, N. E. D., Jørgensen, A. & Gerlach, J. (1981) Vasopressin in anergic schizophrenia. A cross-over study with lysine-8-vasopressin and placebo. Psychopharmacology, 74, 379382.
Laakmann, G. (1980) Neuroendocrinological findings in affective disorders after administration of antidepressants. Advances in Biological Psychiatry, 5, 6784.
Leboeuf, A., Lodge, J. & Eames, P. G. (1978) Vasopressin and memory in Korsakoff syndrome. Lancet, ii, 1370.
Legros, J. J., Gilot, P., Seron, X., Claessens, J., Adam, A., Moeglen, J. M., Audibert, A. & Berchier, P. (1978) Influence of vasopressin on learning and memory. Lancet, i, 4142.
Lerer, B., Zabow, T., Egnal, N. & Belmaker, R. H. (1983) Effect of vasopressin on memory following electroconvulsive therapy. Biological Psychiatry, 18, 821824.
Lingjaerde, O. (1983) The biochemistry of depression. A survey of monoaminergic, neuroendocrinological, and bio-rhythmic disturbances in endogenous depression. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Suppl. 302, 3651.
Loosen, P. T. & Prange, A. J. (1982) Serum thyrotropin response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone in psychiatric patients: a review. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 405416.
Martin, J. B., Reichlin, S. & Brown, G. M. (1977) Clinical neuroendocrinology. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Co.
Oliveros, J. C., Jandali, M. K., Timsit-Berthier, M., Remy, R., Benghezal, A., Audibert, A. & Moeglen, J. M. (1978) Vasopressin in amnesia. Lancet, i, 42.
Overall, J. E. & Gorham, D. R. (1962) The brief psychiatric rating scale. Psychological Reports, 10, 799812.
Prange, A. J. Jr., Lara, P. P., Wilson, I. C., Alltop, L. B. & Breese, G. R. (1972) Effects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in depression. Lancet, ii, 991002.
Pribram, K. H. & Mcguinness, D. (1975) Arousal, activation and effort in the control of attention. Psychological Review, 82, 116149.
Reding, M. J. & Diponte, P. (1983) Vasopressin in Alzheimer's disease. Neurology, 33, 16341635.
Reichlin, S. (1974) Neuroendocrinology. In Textbook of Endocrinology, 5th ed. (ed. Williams, R. H.). Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co.
Reppert, S. M., Artman, H. G., Swaminathan, S. & Fischer, D. A. (1981) Vasopressin exhibits a rhythmic daily pattern in cerebrospinal fluid but not in blood. Science, 213, 12561257.
Sahgal, A. (1984) A critique of the vasopressin-memory hypothesis. Psychopharmacology, 83, 215228.
Schwartz, W. J., Coleman, R. J. & Reppert, S. M. (1983) A daily vasopressin rhythm in rat cerebrospinal fluid. Brain Research, 263, 105112.
Siegel, S. (1956) Non-parametric statistics. New York: McGraw Hill.
Sørensen, P. S., Gjerris, A. & Hammer, M. (1985) Cerebrospinal fluid vasopressin in neurological and psychiatric disorders. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 48, 5057.
Sørensen, P. S., Hammer, M. & Bolwig, T. G. (1982) Vasopressin release during electroconvulsive therapy. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 7, 303308.
Strömgren, L. S. (1977) The influence of depression on memory. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 56, 109128.
Tamminga, C. A., Durso, R., Fedio, P. & Chase, T. N. (1982) Vasopressin studies in Alzheimer's disease. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 18, 4849.
Tanaka, M., de Kloet, E. R., De Wied, D., & Versteeg, D. H. G. (1977) Arginine-8-vasopressin affects catecholamine metabolism in specific brain nuclet. Life Sciences, 20, 17991808.
Vanderwolf, C. H. & Robinson, T. E. (1981) Reticulo-cortical activity and behaviour: A critique of the arousal theory and a new synthesis. The Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 4, 459514.
Weingartner, H., Gold, P., Ballenger, J. C., Smallberg, S. A., Summers, R., Rubinow, D. R., Post, R. M., & Goodwin, F. K. (1981) Effects of vasopressin on human memory functions. Science, 211, 601603.
Wood, J. H. (1983) Physiology and pharmacology of hormones in CSF. In Neurobiology of Cerebrospinal Fluid 2 (ed. Wood, J. H.). New York: Plenum Press, pp. 4365.
World Health Organisation (1978). Glossary of mental disorders and guide to their classification for use in conjunction with the International Classification of Disease, 9th revision. Geneva: WHO.

Cerebrospinal Fluid Vasopressin—Changes in Depression

  • Annette Gjerris (a1), Per Vendsborg (a2), Mogens Hammer (a3), Niels Juel Christensen (a4) and Ole J. Rafaelsen (a5)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.

Cerebrospinal Fluid Vasopressin—Changes in Depression

  • Annette Gjerris (a1), Per Vendsborg (a2), Mogens Hammer (a3), Niels Juel Christensen (a4) and Ole J. Rafaelsen (a5)...
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *