Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Personality Traits, Future Time Perspective and Adaptive Behavior in Adolescence

  • Renato Gil Gomes Carvalho (a1) and Rosa Ferreira Novo (a1)

Abstract

Several studies provide evidence of the importance of future time perspective (FTP) for individual success. However, little research addresses the relationship between FTP and personality traits, particularly if FTP can mediate their influence on behavior. In this study we analyze the mediating of FTP in the influence of personality traits on the way adolescents live their life at school. Sample consisted in 351 students, aged from 14 to 18 years-old, at different schooling levels. Instruments were the Portuguese version of the MMPI-A, particularly the PSY-5 dimensions (Aggressiveness, Psychoticism, Disconstraint, Neuroticism, Introversion), a FTP questionnaire, and a survey on school life, involving several indicators of achievement, social integration, and overall satisfaction. With the exception of Neuroticism, the results show significant mediation effects (p < .001) of FTP on most relationships between PSY-5 dimensions and school life variables. Concerning Disconstraint, FTP mediated its influence on overall satisfaction (β = –.125) and school achievement (β = –.106). In the case of Introversion, significant mediation effects occurred for interpersonal difficulties (β = .099) and participation in extracurricular activities (β = –.085). FTP was also a mediator of Psychoticism influence in overall satisfaction (β = –.094), interpersonal difficulties (β = .057), and behavior problems (β = .037). Finally, FTP mediated the influence of Aggressiveness on overall satisfaction (β = –.061), interpersonal difficulties (β = .040), achievement (β = –.052), and behavior problems (β = .023). Results are discussed considering the importance of FTP in the impact of some personality structural characteristics in students’ school adaptation.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Renato G. Carvalho. Centro de Investigação em Psicologia. Universidade de Lisboa. Alameda da Universidade. 1649–013. Lisboa (Portugal). Phone: +351–217943655. Fax: +351–217933408. E-mail: renatoggc@gmail.com

References

Hide All
Barrick, M. R., Mount, M. K., & Judge, T. A. (2001). Personality and performance at the beginning of the new millennium: What do we know and where do we go next. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 9, 930. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2389.00160
Bembenutty, H., & Karabenick, S. (2004). Inherent association between academic delay of gratification, future time perspective and self-regulated learning: Effects of time perspective on student motivation. Educational Psychology Review, 16, 3557.
Butcher, J. N., Williams, C. L., Graham, J. R., Archer, R. P., Tellegen, A., Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Kaemmer, B. (1992). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory – A (MMPI-A): Manual for administration, scoring, and interpretation. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Carvalho, R. G. (2012). A personalidade na compreensão do percurso escolar na adolescência [Personality in the comprehension of school life in adolescence]. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Lisbon, Portugal.
Carvalho, R. G. (2015). Desenvolvimento de projectos de futuro na adolescência: avaliação e perspectivas sobre a intervenção psicológica [The development of future projects in adolescence: Evaluation and perspectives regarding psychological intervention]. Revista Iberoamericana de Diagnóstico y Evaluación Psicológica, 39.
Carvalho, R. G., & Novo, R. F. (2012). Family socioeconomic status and student adaptation to school life: Looking beyond grades. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 10, 12091222.
Carvalho, R. G., & Novo, R. F. (2014). The relationship between personality structural dimensions and school life in adolescence. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 27, 209217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-7153.201427218
Carvalho, R. G. Pocinho, M., & Silva, C. (2010). Comportamento adaptativo e perspectivação do futuro: algumas evidências nos contextos da educação e da saúde [Adaptive behavior and future time perspective: some evidence in education and health settings]. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 23, 554561. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-79722010000300016
Caspi, A., & Shiner, R. L. (2006). Personality Development. In Eisenberg, N. (Ed.), Handbook of Child Psychology. Social, Emotional, and Personality Development (Vol. 3., pp. 300365). New York, NY: Wiley.
Costa, P. T. Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI): Professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Guichard, J. (2011, May). How to help people develop their careers and design their lives in Western societies at the beginning of the 21st Century? Conference at the Faculty of Psychology, University of Lisbon, Portugal.
Hill, J. (2002). Biological, psychological and social processes in the conduct disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 133164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.00007
Husman, J., & Lens, W. (1999). The role of the future in student motivation. Educational Psychologist, 34, 113125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep3402_4
Janeiro, I. N. (2010). Vocational dynamics in the development of career attitudes among adolescents. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76, 170177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2009.12.003
Lens, W., & Tsuzuki, M. (2005, September). The role of motivation and future time perspective in educational and career development. Paper presented at the International Conference of the International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance (IAEVG). Lisbon, Portugal.
Lens, W., & Tsuzuki, M. (2007). The role of motivation and future time perspective in educational and career development. Psychologica, 46, 2942.
Lens, W., Paixão, M. P., Herrera, D., & Grobler, A. (2012). Future time perspective as a motivational variable: Content and extension of future goals affect the quantity and quality of motivation. Japanese Psychological Research, 54, 321333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5884.2012.00520.x
Maroco, J. (2010). Análise de equações estruturais: fundamentos teóricos, software e aplicações [Analysis of structural equations: Theoretical bases, software and applications]. Pero Pinheiro, Portugal: Report Number.
McAdams, D. P. (1995). What do we know when we know a person? Journal of Personality, 63, 365396. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1995.tb00500.x
McAdams, D. P. (1997). A conceptual history of personality psychology. In Hogan, R., Johnson, J., & Briggs, S. (Eds.), Handbook of personality psychology (pp. 439). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
McAdams, D. P., & Olson, B. D. (2010). Personality development: Continuity and change over the life course. Annual Review of Psychology, 61, 517542. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.093008.100507
McInerney, D. M. (2004). A discussion of future-time perspective. Educational Psychology Review, 16, 141151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:EDPR.0000026610.18125.a3
McNulty, J. L., Harkness, A. R., Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Williams, C. L. (1997). Assessing the personality psychopathology five (PSY-5) in adolescents: New MMPI-A scales. Psychological Assessment, 9, 250259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.9.3.250
Miller, J. D., & Lynam, D. (2001). Structural models of personality and their relation to antisocial behavior: A meta-analytic review. Criminology, 39, 765798. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2001.tb00940.x
Nuttin, J. R., & Lens, W. (1985). Future time perspective and motivation: Theory and research method. Hillside, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Peetsma, T. T. D. (2000). Future time perspective as a predictor of school investment. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 44, 177192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/713696667
Peetsma, T., Hascher, T., & van der Veen, I. (2005). Relations between adolescents’ self evaluations, time perspectives, motivation for school and their achievement in different countries and different ages. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 20, 209225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03173553
Peetsma, T., & van der Veen, I. (2011). Relations between de development of future time perspective in three life domains, investment in learning, and academic achievement. Learning and Instruction, 21, 481494. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2010.08.001
Poropat, A. E. (2009). A meta-analysis of the Five-Factor model of personality and academic performance. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 322338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0014996
Savickas, M. L. (2005). The theory and practice of career construction. In Brown, S. D. & Lent, R. W. (Eds.), Career development and counseling – Putting theory and research to work (pp. 4270). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Savickas, M. L. (2012, September). Case studies in career construction. Conference at Faculty of Psychology, University of Lisbon, Portugal.
Silva, D., Novo, R., Prazeres, N., & Pires, R. (2006). Inventário Multifásico de Personalidade de Minnesota (Adolescentes): Versão experimental portuguesa do MMPI-A [Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (Adolescent): Portuguese experimental version of the MMPI-A]. Lisboa, Portugal: Centro de Investigação em Psicologia da Universidade de Lisboa.
Simons, J., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., & Lacante, M. (2004). Placing motivation and future time perspective theory in a temporal perspective. Educational Psychology Review, 16, 121139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:EDPR.0000026609.94841.2f
Stouthard, M., & Peetsma, T. (1999). Future time perspective: Analysis of a facet designed questionnaire. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 15, 99105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1027//1015-5759.15.2.99
Vollrath, M. E., & Torgersen, S. (2008). Personality types and risky health behaviors in Norwegian students. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49, 287292. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.2008.00631.x
Walker, T. L., & Tracey, T. J. G. (2012). The role of future time perspective in career decision-making. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 81, 150158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2012.06.002
Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (1999). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 12711288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.77.6.1271
Zuckerman, M., & Kuhlman, D. M. (2000). Personality and risk taking: Common biosocial factors. Journal of Personality, 68, 9991029. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.00124

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed