Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Lexical and Phonological Processing in Visual Word Recognition by Stuttering Children: Evidence from Spanish

  • Carlos J. Álvarez (a1), Janeth Hernández-Jaramillo (a2) and Juan A. Hernández-Cabrera (a1)

Abstract

A number of studies have pointed out that stuttering-like disfluencies could be the result of failures in central and linguistic processing. The goal of the present paper is to analyze if stuttering implies deficits in the lexical and phonological processing in visual word recognition. This study compares the performance of 28 children with and without stuttering in a standard lexical decision task in a transparent orthography: Spanish. Word frequency and syllable frequency were manipulated in the experimental words. Stutterers were found to be considerably slower (in their correct responses) and produced more errors than the non- stutterers (χ(1) = 36.63, p < .001, η2 = .60). There was also a facilitation effect of syllable frequency, restricted to low frequency words and only in the stutterers group (t1(10) = 3.67, p < .005; t2(36) = 3.10, p < .001). These outcomes appear to suggest that the decoding process of stutterers exhibits a deficit in the interface between the phonological-syllabic level and the word level.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Carlos Javier Álvarez González. Dpto. de Psicología Cognitiva, Social y Organizacional. Facultad de Psicología. Campus de Guajara. Universidad de La Laguna. 38205. La Laguna (Spain). Phone: 0034–922317507. Fax: 0034–922317461. E-mail: carlos.j.alvarez@gmail.com

References

Hide All
Álvarez, C. J., Carreiras, M., & De Vega, M. (2000). Syllable frequency effect in visual word recognition: Evidence of a sequential-type processing. Psicológica, 21, 341374.
Álvarez, C. J., Carreiras, M., & Perea, M. (2004). Are syllables phonological units in visual word recognition? Language and Cognitive Processes, 19, 427452.
Álvarez, C. J., Carreiras, M., & Taft, M. (2001). Syllables and morphemes: Contrasting frequency effects in Spanish. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27, 545555.
Anderson, J. D. (2007). Phonological neighborhood and word frequency effects in the stuttered disfluencies of children who stutter. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50, 229247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2007/018)
Anderson, J. D., & Conture, E. G. (2000). Language abilities of children who stutter: A preliminary study. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 25, 283304.
Armson, J., & Kalinowski, J. (1994). Interpreting results of the fluent speech paradigm in stuttering research: Difficulties in separating cause from effect. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 37, 6982.
Arndt, J., & Healey, E. C. (2001). Concomitant disorders in school-age children who stutter. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in School, 32, 6878. http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/0161-1461(2001/006)
Au-Yeung, J., & Howell, P. (2002). Non-word reading, lexical retrieval and stuttering: Comments on Packman, Onslow, Coombes and Goodwin. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 16, 287293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699200210128981
Au-Yeung, J., Howell, P., & Pilgrim, L. (1998). Phonological words and stuttering on function words. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 41, 10191030.
Au-Yeung, J., Vallejo-Gómez, I., & Howell, P. (2003). Exchange of disfluency with age from function words to content words in Spanish speakers who stutter. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 46, 754765. http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2003/060)
Baayen, R. H., Davidson, D. J., & Bates, D. M. (2008) Mixed-effects modeling with crossed random effects for subjects and items. Journal of Memory and Language, 59, 390412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2007.12.005
Bakhtiar, M., Abad Ali, D. A., & Sadegh, S. P. (2007). Nonword repetition ability of children who do and do not stutter and covert repair hypothesis. Indian Journal Medical Science, 61, 462470. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5359.33711
Bates, D. M. (2005). Fitting linear mixed models in R. R News, 5, 2730.
Bates, D., & Maechler, M. (2009). lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using S4 classes [Computer software manual]. Retrieved from http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=lme4
Bosshardt, H. G., & Nandyal, I. (1988). Reading rates of stutterers and nonstutterers during silent and oral reading. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 13, 407420. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0094-730X(88)90008-3
Brocklehurst, P. H., & Corley, M. (2011). Investigating the inner speech of people who stutter: Evidence for (and against) the covert repair hypothesis. Journal of Communication Disorders, 44, 246260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcomdis.2010.11.004
Brutten, G. J., Bakker, K., Janssen, P., & Van der Meulen, S. (1984). Eye movements of stuttering and nonstuttering children during silent reading. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 27, 562566.
Byrd, C. T., Conture, E. G., & Ohde, R. N. (2007). Phonological priming in young children who stutter: Holistic versus incremental processing. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16, 4353.http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/1058-0360(2007/006)
Carreiras, M., Álvarez, C. J., & de Vega, M. (1993). Syllable frequency and visual word recognition in Spanish. Journal of Memory and Language, 32, 766780.http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1993.1038
Carreiras, M., & Perea, M. (2004). Naming pseudowords in Spanish: Effects of syllable frequency. Brain and Language, 90, 393400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2003.12.003
Chétail, F., & Mathey, S. (2009). The syllable frequency effect in visual word recognition of French words: A study in skilled and beginning readers. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 22, 955973.
Colé, P., Magnan, A., & Grainger, J. (1999). Syllable-sized units in visual word recognition: Evidence from skilled and beginning readers of French. Applied Psycholinguistics, 20, 507532.
Conrad, M., Grainger, J., & Jacobs, A. M. (2007). Phonology as the source of syllable frequency effects in visual word recognition: Evidence from French. Memory & Cognition, 35, 974983. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03193470
Conrad, M., & Jacobs, A. M. (2004). Replicating syllable-frequency effects in Spanish in German: One more challenger to computational models of visual word recognition. Language and Cognitive Processes, 19, 369390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01690960344000224
Cuetos, F., Rodríguez, B., & Ruano, E. (1996). Evaluación de los procesos lectores (PROLEC) [Reading Processes Assesment]. Madrid, Spain: TEA Ediciones.
Davis, C. J., & Perea, M. (2005). BuscaPalabras: A program for deriving orthographic and phonological neighborhood statistics and other psycholinguistic indices in Spanish. Behavior Research Methods, 37, 665671. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03192738
Domínguez, A., de Vega, M., & Cuetos, F. (1997). Lexical inhibition from syllabic units in Spanish visual word recognition. Language and Cognitive Processes, 12, 401422.
Ferrand, L., Segui, J., & Grainger, J. (1996). Masked priming of words and picture naming: The role of syllabic units. Journal of Memory and Language, 35, 708723. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1996.0037
Hernández-Jaramillo, J., & Álvarez, C. J. (2009). La tartamudez como un fenómeno prearticulatorio [Stuttering as a prearticulatory phenomenom]. Acta Neurológica Colombiana, 25, 2533.
Howell, P. (2004). Comparison of two ways of defining phonological words for assessing stuttering pattern changes with age in Spanish speakers who stutter. Journal of Multilingual Communication Disorders, 2, 161186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14769670412331271105
Howell, P., & Au-Yeung, J. (2007). Phonetic complexity and stuttering in Spanish. Clinical Linguistic Phonetics, 21, 111127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699200600709511
Hubbard, C. P., & Prins, D. (1994). Word familiarity, syllabic stress pattern, and stuttering. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 37, 564571.
Jiménez, J. E., & Hernández-Valle, I. (2000). Word identification and reading disorder in the Spanish language. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33, 4460.
Jiménez, J. E., & Rodrigo, M. (1994). Is it true that the differences in reading performance between students with and without LD cannot be explained by IQ? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 27, 155163.
Levelt, W. J., & Wheeldon, L. (1994). Do speakers have access to a mental syllabary? Cognition, 50, 239269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(94)90030-2
Macizo, P., & Van Petten, C. (2007). Syllable frequency in lexical decision and naming of English words. Reading and Writing, 20, 295331. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11145-006-9032-z
Maïonchi-Pino, N., Magnan, A., & Écalle, J. (2010). Syllable frequency effects in visual word recognition: Developmental approach in French children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 31, 7082.
Melnick, K., Conture, E., Ohde, R. N. (2003). Phonological priming in picture naming of young children who stutter. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 46, 14281443. http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2003/111)
Nippold, M. A. (2002). Stuttering and phonology: Is there an interaction? American Journal of Speech - Language Pathology, 11, 99110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/1058-0360(2002/011)
Pellowski, M. W., & Conture, E. G. (2005). Lexical priming in picture naming in young children who do and do not stutter. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, 48, 278294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2005/019)
Perea, M., & Carreiras, M. (1998). Effects of syllable frequency and syllable neighborhood frequency in visual word recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 24, 134144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0096-1523.24.1.134
Perkins, W. H., Kent, R., & Curlee, R. (1991). A theory of neuropsycholinguistic function in stuttering. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 34, 734752.
Postma, A., & Kolk, H. (1991). Error monitoring in people who stutter: Evidence against auditory feedback defect theories. Journal of Speech & Hearing Disorders, 35, 10241032.
Postma, A., & Kolk, H. (1993). The covert repair hypothesis: prearticulatory repair processes in normal and stuttered disfluencies. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research, 36, 472487.
Postma, A., Kolk, H., & Povel, D.-J. (1990). Speech planning and execution in stutterers. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 15, 4959. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0094-730X(90)90032-N
Riley, G. D. (1994). Stuttering severity instrument for children and adults – SSI-3 (3 rd Ed.). Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
Rodrigo, M., & Jiménez, J. E. (2000). IQ vs phonological recoding skill in explaining differences between poor readers and normal readers in word recognition: Evidence from a naming task. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 12, 129142.
Sasisekaran, J., & De Nil, L. F. (2006). Phoneme monitoring in silent naming and perception in adults who stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 31, 284302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfludis.2006.08.001
Sebastián-Gallés, N., Martí, M. A, Carreiras, M., & Cuetos, F. (2000). LEXESP: Léxico Informatizado del español [Spanish Lexical Data Base]. Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona.
Watson, J., Byrd, C., & Carlo, E. (2011a). Disfluent speech characteristics of monolingual Spanish-speaking children. In Howell, P. and Van Borsel, J. (Eds.), Multilingual aspects of fluency disorders. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Watson, J., Byrd, C., & Carlo, E. (2011b). Effects of length, complexity, and grammatical correctness on stuttering in Spanish-speaking preschool children. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 20, 209220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/1058-0360(2011/10-0019)
Weber-Fox, C., Spencer, R. M. C., Spruill, J. E, , III., & Smith, A. (2004). Phonologic processing in adults who stutter: Electrophysiological and behavioral evidence. Journal of Speech and Language, and Hearing Research, 47, 12441258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2004/094)
Yaruss, J. S., LaSalle, L. R., & Conture, E. G. (1998). Evaluating stuttering in young children: Diagnostic data. American Journal of Speech - Language Pathology, 7, 6276.

Keywords

Lexical and Phonological Processing in Visual Word Recognition by Stuttering Children: Evidence from Spanish

  • Carlos J. Álvarez (a1), Janeth Hernández-Jaramillo (a2) and Juan A. Hernández-Cabrera (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed