Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Concurrent and Lagged Relations between Emotion Regulation and Affect in Adolescents’ Daily Life

  • Eliana Silva (a1), Teresa Freire (a1) and Susana Faria (a1)

Abstract

A better understanding of emotion regulation (ER) within daily life is a growing focus of research. This study evaluated the average use of two ER strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) and concurrent and lagged relationships between these two ER strategies and affect (positive and negative affect) in the daily lives of adolescents. We also investigated the role of the same strategies at the trait level on these within-person relationships. Thirty-three adolescents provided 1,258 reports of their daily life by using the Experience Sampling Method for one week. Regarding the relative use of ER strategies, cognitive reappraisal (M = 2.87, SD = 1.58) was used more often than expressive suppression (M = 2.42, SD = 1.21). While the use of both strategies was positively correlated when evaluated in daily life (p = .01), the same did not occur at the trait level (p = .37). Multilevel analysis found that ER strategies were concurrently related to affect (p < .01), with the exception of cognitive reappraisal-positive affect relationship (p = .11). However, cognitive reappraisal predicted higher positive affect at the subsequent sampling moment ( β = 0.07, p = .03). The concurrent associations between cognitive reappraisal and negative affect vary as function of the use of this strategy at the trait level (β = 0.05, p = .02). Our findings highlighted the complex associations between daily ER strategies and affect of a normative sample of adolescents.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Teresa Freire. Universidade do Minho. Escola de Psicologia. Departamento de Psicologia Aplicada. 4710–057 Braga (Portugal). E-mail: tfreire@psi.uminho.pt

Footnotes

Hide All

This research was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology through a Doctoral grant (SFRH/BD/90581/2012) to Eliana Silva, supported by national funds of the Ministry of Education and Science and the European Social Fund through the Human Capital Operational Program. This study was conducted at Psychology Research Centre (UID/PSI/01662/2013), University of Minho, and supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology and the Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education through national funds and co-financed by FEDER through COMPETE2020 under the PT2020 Partnership Agreement (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007653).

How to cite this article:

Silva, E., Freire, T., & Faria, S. (2018). Concurrent and lagged relations between emotion regulation and affect in adolescents’ daily life. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 21. e67. Doi:10.1017/sjp.2018.61

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Augustine, A. A., & Larsen, R. J. (2012). Emotion research. In Mehl, M. R. & Conner, T. S. (Eds.), Handbook of research methods for studying daily life (pp. 497510). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Bariola, E., Hughes, E. K., & Gullone, E. (2012). Relationships between parent and child emotion regulation: A brief report. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21, 443448. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-011-9497-5
Baxter, R. J., & Hunton, J. E. (2011). Capturing affect via the experience sampling method: Prospects for accounting information systems researchers. International Journal of Accounting Information Systems, 12, 9098. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.accinf.2010.12.002
Bonanno, G. A., Papa, A., Lalande, K., Westphal, M., & Coifman, K. (2004). The importance of being flexible. Psychological Science, 15, 482487. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.00705.x
Brans, K., Koval, P., Verduyn, P., Lim, Y. L., & Kuppens, P. (2013). The regulation of negative and positive affect in daily life. Emotion, 13(5), 926939. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032400
Brockman, R., Ciarrochi, J., Parker, P., & Kashdan, T. (2016). Emotion regulation strategies in daily life: Mindfulness, cognitive reappraisal and emotion suppression. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 46(2), 91113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16506073.2016.1218926
Brose, A., Voelkle, M. C., Lövdén, M., Lindenberger, U., & Schmiedek, F. (2015). Differences in the between-person and within-person structures of affect are a matter of degree. European Journal of Personality, 29, 5571. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/per.1961
Costa, A., Faria, L., & Takšić, V. (2016). Cross-cultural invariance of emotional skills and competence questionnaire between Portugal and Croatia. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 19, E31. https://doi.org/10.1017/sjp.2016.33
Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Larson, R. (1987). Validity and reliability of the experience sampling method. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 175, 526536. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-198709000-00004
Dixon-Gordon, K. L., Aldao, A., & De Los Reyes, A. (2015). Emotion regulation in context: Examining the spontaneous use of strategies across emotional intensity and type of emotion. Personality and Individual Differences, 86, 271276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.06.011
English, T., Lee, I. A., John, O. P., & Gross, J. J. (2017). Emotion regulation strategy selection in daily life: The role of social context and goals. Motivation and Emotion, 41(2), 230242. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-016-9597-z
Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218226. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.56.3.218
Gilbert, K. E. (2012). The neglected role of positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology. Clinical Psychology Review, 32(6), 467481. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2012.05.005
Goetz, T., Frenzel, A. C., Stoeger, H., & Hall, N. C. (2010). Antecedents of everyday positive emotions: An experience sampling analysis. Motivation and Emotion, 34(1), 4962. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-009-9152-2
Gross, J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2(3), 271299. https://doi.org/10.1037//1089-2680.2.3.271
Gross, J. J. (2002). Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology, 39(3), 281291. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0048577201393198
Gross, J. J. (2015). Emotion regulation: Current status and future prospects. Psychological Inquiry, 26(1), 126. https://doi.org/10.1080/1047840X.2014.940781
Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(2), 348. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348
Gross, J. J., & Thompson, R. A. (2007). Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. In Gross, J. J. (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 324). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Gullone, E., & Taffe, J. (2012). The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (ERQ-CA): A psychometric evaluation. Psychological Assessment, 24(2), 409417. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025777
Hoffman, L., & Stawski, R. S. (2009). Persons as contexts: Evaluating between-person and within-person effects in longitudinal analysis. Research in Human Development, 6(2–3), 97120. http://doi.org/10.1080/15427600902911189
Hulin, C. L., Henry, R. A., & Noon, S. L. (1990). Adding a dimension: Time as a factor in the generalizability of predictive relationships. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 328340. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.107.3.328
Ilies, R., & Judge, T. A. (2002). Understanding the dynamic relationships among personality, mood, and job satisfaction: A field experience sampling study. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 89(2), 11191139. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-5978(02)00018-3
John, O. P., & Gross, J. J. (2004). Healthy and unhealthy emotion regulation: Personality processes, individual differences, and life span development. Journal of Personality, 72(6), 13011334. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2004.00298.x
Juslin, P. N., Liljeström, S., Västfjäll, D., Barradas, G., & Silva, A. (2008). An experience sampling study of emotional reactions to music: Listener, music, and situation. Emotion, 8(5), 668683. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013505
Larson, R., & Delespaul, P. A. (1992). Analyzing experience sampling data: A guidebook for the perplexed. In deVries, M. W. (Ed.), The Experience of psychopathology: Investigating mental disorders in their natural settings (pp. 5878). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Machado, C., Gomes, J., & Freire, T. (2009). The Psycho Beeper (Version 0.9) [Electronic beeper software]. Braga, Portugal: Universidade do Minho.
Maes, I. H. L., Delespaul, P. A. E. G., Peters, M. L., White, M. P., van Horn, Y., Schruers, K., … & Joore, M. (2015). Measuring health-related quality of life by experiences: The experience sampling method. Value in Health, 18(1), 4451. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2014.10.003
Nezlek, J. B., & Kuppens, P. (2008). Regulation positive and negative emotions in daily life. Journal of Personality, 76(3), 561580 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2008.00496.x
Opitz, P. C., Cavanagh, S. R., & Urry, H. L. (2015). Uninstructed emotion regulation choice in four studies of cognitive reappraisal. Personality and Individual Differences, 86, 455464. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.06.048
Pinheiro, J., Bates, D., DebRoy, S., Sarkar, D., & R Core Team (2014). nlme: Linear and nonlinear mixed effects models [R package version 3.1–118]. Retrieved from http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=nlme
Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Steinberg, L. (2005). Cognitive and affective development in adolescence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(2), 6974. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2004.12.005
Teixeira, A., Silva, E., Tavares, D., & Freire, T. (2015). Portuguese validation of the emotion regulation questionnaire for children and adolescents (ERQ-CA): Relations with self-esteem and life satisfaction. Child Indicators Research, 8(3), 605621. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-014-9266-2
Thompson, R. A. (2011). Emotion and emotion regulation: Two sides of the developing coin. Emotion Review, 3(1), 5361. https://doi.org/10.1177/1754073910380969
Troy, A. S., Shallcross, A. J., & Mauss, I. B. (2013). A person-by-situation approach to emotion regulation: Cognitive reappraisal can either help or hurt, depending on the context. Psychological Science, 24, 25052514. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797613496434
Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 10631070. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063

Keywords

Concurrent and Lagged Relations between Emotion Regulation and Affect in Adolescents’ Daily Life

  • Eliana Silva (a1), Teresa Freire (a1) and Susana Faria (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed