Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-7f7b94f6bd-l8tfn Total loading time: 0.743 Render date: 2022-06-29T23:47:41.388Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Intimate Partner Violence in the United States: An Ecological Approach to Prevention and Treatment

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 April 2008

Marcia A. Shobe
University of Arkansas, School of Social Work E-mail:
Jacqueline Dienemann
University of North Carolina at Charlotte, School of Adult Health Nursing


Physical, sexual, verbal and economic abuse, also known as Intimate Partner Violence (IPV), comprise a major public health problem. IPV risk factors include poverty, stress, substance use, depression, and history of child maltreatment. Protective factors include human capital (functional health and work competencies/qualifications), social capital (formal/informal relationships and resources) and financial capital (income and assets). Traditional IPV initiatives focus on increasing social capital by changing the cognition and/or behaviour of victims or perpetrators and increasing legal sanctions and supportive resources. The proposed Asset Model of IPV Resolution extends the current model to include an ecological approach to the prevention and resolution of IPV. In addition to human and social capital development, the authors suggest financial capital development through Individual Development Accounts (IDAs) as one social policy initiative to support women at risk of or women who experience IPV.

Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2007

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Adler, P. S. and Kwon, S.-W. (2000), ‘Social capital: the good, the bad, and the ugly’, in Lesser, E. (ed.), Knowledge and Social Capital: Foundations and Applications, Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, pp. 89115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, M. A., Gillig, P. M., Sitaker, M., McCloskey, K., Malloy, K. and Grigsby, N. (2003), ‘“Why doesn't she just leave?”: a descriptive study of victim reported impediments to her safety’, Journal of Family Violence, 18, 3, 151155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bailey, W. C. (1999), ‘The socioeconomic staus of women and patterns of forcible rape for major US cities’, Sociological Focus, 32, 4363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baker, C. K., Cook, S. L. and Norris, F. H. (2003), ‘IPV and housing problems’, Violence Against Women, 9, 7, 754783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Becker, G. S. (1964), Human Capital, New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Bensley, L., Van Eenwyk, J. and Wynkoop Simmons, K. (2003), ‘Childhood family violence history and women's risk for intimate partner violence and poor health’, American Journal Preventive Medicine, 25, 1, 3844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benson, M. L. and Fox, G. L. (2004), ‘When violence hits home: how economics and neighborhood play a role’, Research Brief, National Institute of Justice, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Beverly, S. and Sherraden, M. (1997), ‘Human capital and social work’, Working paper no. 97–2, Center for Social Development, Washington University in St Louis, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
Burke, J. G., Denison, J. A., Gielen, A. C., McDonnell, K. A. and O'Campo, P. (2004), ‘Ending intimate partner violence: an application of the transtheoretical model’, American Journal of Health Behavior, 28, 2, 122133.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buzawa, E., Hotaling, G. T., Klein, A. and Byrne, J. (2000), Response to Domestic Violence in a Pro-Active Court Setting – Final Report, Washington, DC: US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
Campbell, J. C., Garza, M., Gielen, A. C., O'Campo, P., Kub, J., Dienemann, J., Jones, A. S., Jafar, E. and Modrow, P. (2003), ‘Intimate partner violence and abuse among active duty military women’, Violence Against Women, 9, 9, 10721092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Campbell, J. C., Rose, L. E., Kub, J. and Nedd, D. (1998), ‘Voices of strength and resistance: a contextual and longitudinal analysis of women's responses to battering’, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 13, 743762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Caner, A. and Wolff, E. N. (2002), ‘Asset poverty in the United States, 1984–1999: evidence from the panel study of income dynamics’, Working paper, Center for Social Development, Washington University in St Louis, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
CDC (2003), ‘Costs of intimate partner violence against women in the United States’, Atlanta, GA, at Scholar
Cluss, P. A., Chang, J. C., Hawker, L., Scholle, S. H., Dado, D., Buranosky, R. and Goldstrohm, S. (2006), ‘The process of change for victims of intimate partner violence’, Women's Health Issues, 16, 262274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Conley, D. (1999), Being Black, Living in the Red: Race, Wealth, and Social Policy in America, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Correia, A. and VonDeLinde, K. M. (2002), Integrating Anti-Poverty Work into IPV Advocacy: Iowa's Experience, Harrisburg, PA: National Resource Center on IPV.Google Scholar
Dahlberg, L. L. and Krug, E. G. (2006), ‘Violence a global public health problem’, at Scholar
Dienemann, J., Campbell, J., Curry, M. and Landenburger, K. (2002), ‘IPV survivor assessment: a tool for counseling women in violent intimate partner relationships’, Patient Education and Counseling Journal, 46, 3, 221228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dobash, R. E. and Dobash, R. P. (1998), Rethinking Violence Against Women, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
Edwards, K. (2005), ‘Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) and Individuals Development Accounts (IDAs): a good match?’, CSD Policy Report 05-02, Center for Social Development, Washington University in St Louis, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
Edwards, K. and Mason, L. M. (2003), ‘State policy trends for Individual Development Accounts in the United States: 1993 – 2003’, Policy Report, Center for Social Development, Washington University in St Louis, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
Eschholz, S. and Vieraitis, L. (2004), ‘Race-specific gender equality and rape: a further test of feminist hypotheses’, Critical Criminology, 12, 195219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farmer, A. and Tiefenthaler, J. (1997), ‘An economic analysis of IPV’, Review of Social Economy, 55, 3, 337358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Filmer, D. (2003), ‘Determinants of health and education outcomes’, Background Note for World Development Report 2004, The World Bank, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Frieze, I. H. (2005), Hurting the One You Love: Violence in Relationships, Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.Google Scholar
Global Policy Forum 12 October (2005), ‘The promise of equality: gender equity, reproductive health and the millennium development goals’, Press Summary, at: Google Scholar
Goodman, L., Dutton, M. A., Vankos, N. and Weinfurt, K. (2005), ‘Women's resources and use of strategies as risk and protective factors for reabuse over time’, Violence Against Women, 11, 3, 311336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greenfeld, L. A. et al. (1998), Violence by Intimates: Analysis of Data on Crimes by Current or Former Spouses, Boyfriends, and Girlfriends, Washington, DC: US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
Grinstein-Weiss, M. and Sherraden, M. (2004), ‘Racial differences in performance in a matched savings program’, Working paper 04–04, Center for Social Development, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO.Google Scholar
Grootaert, C., Narayan, D., Jones, V. N. and Woolcock, M. (2004), ‘Measuring social capital: an integrated questionnaire’, World Bank Working paper no. 18, World Bank, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Hancock, T. (2001), ‘People, partnerships and human progress: building community capital’, Health Promotion International, 16, 3, 275280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kirsch, I., Jungeblut, A., Jenkins, L. and Kolstad, A. (1993), Adult Literacy in America: A First Look at the Results of the National Adult Literacy Survey, Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement, National Center for Educational Statistics.Google Scholar
Laird, J. (1979), ‘An ecological approach to child welfare: issues of family identity and Continuity’, in Germain, C.B. (eds), Social Work Practice: People in Environments, New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 174207.Google Scholar
Lambert, L. C. and Firestone, J. M. (2000), ‘Economic context and multiple abuse techniques’, Violence Against Women, 6, 1, 4967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levinson, D. (1989), Family Violence in Cross-Cultural Perspective, Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Lyon, E. (2000), ‘Welfare, poverty, and abused women: new research and its implications’, National Resource Center on Domestic Violence, at Scholar
MacKinnon, C. A. (1989), Toward a Feminist Theory of Our State, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Mahoney, P., Williams, L. M. and West, C. M. (2001), ‘Violence against women by intimate relationship partners’, in Claire M. Renzetti, Jeffrey L. Edleson, and Raquel Kennedy Bergen (eds), Sourcebook for Violence Against Women, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, pp. 143178.Google Scholar
Menard, A. (2001), ‘IPV and housing’, Violence Against Women, 7, 6, 707720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martin, K., Vieraitis, L. M. and Britto, S. (2006), ‘Gender equity and women's absolute status’, Violence Against Women, 12, 4, 321339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mincer, J. (1974), Schooling, Experience, and Earnings, New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Moe, A. M. and Bell, M. P. (2004), ‘Abject economics’, Violence Against Women, 10, 1, 2955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nurius, P. S., Macy, R. J., Bhuyan, R., Holt, V. L., Kernic, M. A. and Rivara, F. P. (2003), ‘Contextualizing depression and physical functioning in battered women: adding vulnerability to the analysis’, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18, 12, 14111431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Orzechowski, S. and Sepielli, P. (2003), Net Worth and Asset Ownership of Households: 1998 and 2000, Washington, DC: US Census Bureau.Google Scholar
Petersen, R. (1980), ‘Social class, social learning, and wife abuse’, Social Service Review, 54, 390406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prochaska, J. O. (1979), Systems of Psychotherapy: A Transtheoretical Analysis, Pacific, CA: Brooks-Cole.Google Scholar
Raphael, J. (2001), ‘Public housing and IPV’, Violence Against Women, 7, 6, 699706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raphael, J. (2000), ‘Stiffed at the citadel’, Violence Against Women, 6, 12, 14031416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Riger, S. and Scaggs, S. (2004), ‘The impact of intimate partner violence on women's labor force participation’, Document Number 207143, US Department of Justice, at [accessed 26 December 2006].Google Scholar
Rose, S. J. and Hartmann, H. I. (2004), Still a Man's Labor Market: The Long-Term Earnings Gap, Washington, DC: Institute for Women's Policy Research.Google Scholar
Saltzman, L. E., Fanslow, J. L., McMahon, P. M. and Shelley, G. (1999), ‘Intimate partner violence surveillance: uniform definitions and recommended data elements’, Version 1.0, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
Sanders, C. K. (2004), ‘Economic abuse in the lives of women abused by an intimate partner’, Presented at the Society for Social Work and Research, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
Schultz, T. (1975), ‘The value of the ability to deal with disequilibria’, Journal of Economic Literature, 13, 3, 827846.Google Scholar
Schollenberger, J., Campbell, J., Sharps, P. W., O'Campo, P., Gielen, A. C., Dienemann, J. and Kub, J. (2003), ‘African American HMO Enrollees: their experiences with partner abuse and its effect on their health and use of medical services’, Violence Against Women, 9, 5, 599618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schuler, S. R. and Hashemi, S. M. (1994), ‘Credit programs, women's empowerment, and contraceptive use in rural Bangladesh’, Studies in Family Planning, 25, 6576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sherraden, M. (1991), Assets and the Poor: A New American Welfare Policy, New York: E. Sharpe Inc.Google Scholar
Shobe, M. A. and Christy-McMullin, K. (2006), ‘Joining an asset building program: te social and economic correlates’, Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work, 3, 1, 6178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shobe, M. A. and Boyd, A. S. (2005), ‘Findings from an anti-poverty policy demonstration: relationships between assets and economic hardship’, Journal of Community Practice, 13, 2, 2144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shurman, L. A. and Rodriguez, C. M. (2006), ‘Cognitive-affective predictors of women's readiness to end domestic violence relationships’, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21, 11, 14171439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sullivan, C. M. and Gillum, T. (2001), ‘Shelters and community based services for battered women and their children’, in Renzetti, C. M., Edleson, J. L. and Bergen, R. (eds), The Sourcebook on Violence Against Women, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 247260.Google Scholar
Tjaden, P. and Thoennes, N. (2000), Extent, Nature, and Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence: Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey, Washington, DC: Department of Justice.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
US Census Bureau (2005), Poverty: 2004 Highlights, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
US Census Bureau (2003), Annual social and economic supplement: 2003 Current Population Survey, Current Population Reports (Series P20–553), Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
VonDeLinde, K. M. C. (2002), ‘How are domestic violence programs meeting the economic needs of battered women in Iowa? An assessment and recommendations’, at Scholar
Waldrop, A. E. and Resick, P.A. (2004), ‘Coping among adult female victims of domestic violence’, Journal of Family Violence, 19, 5, 291302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wenzel, S. L., Tucker, J. S., Elliott, M. N., Marshall, G. N. and Williamson, S. L. (2004), ‘Physical violence against impoverished women: a longitudinal analysis of risk and protective factors’, Women's Health Issues, 14, 144154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whaley, R. B. (2001), ‘The paradoxical relationship between gender inequity and rape’, Gender and Society, 15, 531555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilcox, P. (2000), ‘Lone motherhood: the impact on living standards of leaving a violent relationship’, Social Policy and Administration, 34, 2, 176190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woo, L. G., Thomas, J., Buchholz, D. and Uher, J. (2005), ‘Measuring homeownership in America’, Center for Social Development, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
World Bank (2002), ‘Social capital in poverty reduction and economic development: the role of social networks in economic action’, at Scholar
World Health Organization (2002), World Report on Violence and Health, Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
Zhan, M. (2003), ‘Savings outcomes of single mothers in Individual Development Accounts’, Working paper no. 03–07, Center for Social Development, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO.Google Scholar
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Intimate Partner Violence in the United States: An Ecological Approach to Prevention and Treatment
Available formats

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Intimate Partner Violence in the United States: An Ecological Approach to Prevention and Treatment
Available formats

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Intimate Partner Violence in the United States: An Ecological Approach to Prevention and Treatment
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *