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1. While I disagree with the interpretation presented in Thomas Sanders's paper, I would like to compliment him for the gentlemanly and professional demeanor in which he proffered his criticism of my work.

2. Simms, “Crisis in Russian Agriculture,” p. 390. See also Gerschenkron, Alexander, “Agrarian Policies and Industrialization: Russia 1861–1917,” in Habakkuk, H. J. and Postan, N., eds., Cambridge Economic History of Europe, vol. 4, part 2 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1965), p. 778 ; Raymond W. Goldsmith, “The Economic Growth of Tsarist Russia 1860–1913,” Economic Development and Cultural Change, 9 (April 1961): 442; Gregory, Paul, Russian National Income, 1885–1913 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982), pp. 130–31.

3. See, for example, Gerschenkron, Alexander, “Problems and Patterns of Russian Economic Development,” in Black, Cyril, ed., The Transformation of Russian Society (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1960), pp. 5657 .

4. Gregory, Russian National Income, pp. 130–31.

5. Simms, “Crisis in Russian Agriculture,” pp. 378, 384.

6. See Miliukov, Paul, Russia and Its Crisis (New York: Collier Books, 1962), p. 325 ; Sergeevskii, Ivan, Golod v Rossii (Geneva: Society of Old Populists, 1892), p. 32 ; Nikolai–on, , Ocherkinashego poreformennago khoziaistva (St. Petersburg, 1893), pp. 258–59.

7. Von Laue, Theodore H., “The High Cost and the Gamble of the Witte System,” in Readings in Russian History, vol. 2, ed. Harcave, Sidney (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1968), p. 70. Emphasis added.

8. Gregory, Russian National Income, pp. 137–38.

9. Emphasis added.

10. Emphasis added.

11. See Shcherbina, F. A., “Krest'ianskie biudzhety i zavisimost’ ikh ot urozhaev i tsen na khleba,” in Chuprov, A. I. and Posnikov, A. S., eds., Vliianie urozhaev i khlebnykh tsen na nekotoriia storony russkago narodnago khoziaistva, vol. 2 (St. Petersburg, 1897), pp. 179 .

12. Volin, Lazar, A Century of Russian Agriculture: From Alexander II to Khrushchev (Cambridge,Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970), p. 63 .

13. Simms, “Crisis in Russian Agriculture,” p. 380.

14. I do not feel that I quoted Pavlovsky out of context, as Sanders charges in n. 41. See Simms, “Crisis in Russian Agriculture.” p. 386.

15. Ibid., pp. 380–85.


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